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Flashcards in Human Systems Deck (105)
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What is Anatomy?

The study of the structure of an organism and its parts.

1

What is Physiology?

The study of the body functions in a living organism

2

What is Pathophysiology?

The study of body functions of a living organism in an abnormal state

3

What are the five body cavities?

Cranial
Spinal
Thoracic
Abdominal
Pelvic

4

What is the coronal (frontal) plane?

A vertical plane running from side to side; divides the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.

5

What is the sagittal (lateral) plane?

A vertical plane running from front to back; divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.

6

What is the transverse (axial) plane?

A horizontal plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower parts

7

What is diffusion?

The movement of solutes (particles) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

HIGH TO LOW

8

What is osmosis?

The movement of a solvent (usually water) from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration

LOW TO HIGH

9

What is facilitated diffusion?

The process in which a carrier molecule moves substances in or out of the cell; energy is not required

NO ENERGY NEEDED

10

What is active transport?

The movement of a substance against their concentration or gradient; requires energy

NEED ENERGY TO MOVE

11

What is anabolism?

Building phase of metabolism, where smaller molecules are converted to larger molecules

SMALL TO BIG

12

What is catabolism?

The break-down phase of metabolism, in which larger molecules are converted to smaller molecules

BIG TO SMALL

13

What does cellular respiration create?

Energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

14

What are the four lobes of the brain called?

Frontal (in the front)
Parietal (behind frontal)
Occipital (in the back)
Temporal (on the sides under parietal)

15

What four things does the frontal lobe control?

Voluntary motor action
Conscious thought
Personality
Speech

16

What four things does the parietal lobe control?

Language
Taste
Sensory info
Body awareness

17

What does the occipital lobe control?

Vision

18

What two things does the temporal lobe control?

Hearing
Memory

19

What does the cerebrum control?

Higher thought processes

20

What two things does the cerebellum control?

Muscle movement
Balance

21

What two things does the diencephalon contain?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus

22

What three things does the thalamus do?

Processes sensory input
Influences mood
General body movements

23

What two things does the hypothalamus do?

Regulates body temperature, respiration, and heartbeat
Directs hormone secretions of the pituitary gland

24

What three things does the brainstem consist of?

Midbrain (mesencephalon)
Pons
Medulla

25

What two things does the brain stem do?

Controls functions necessary for life
Plays a roll in consciousness

26

The CNS (brain and spinal chord) is enclosed by what?

Meninges

27

What are the three layers of the meninges?

Dura mater
Arachnoid
Pia mater

28

The outer most and toughest layer of the meninges is called what?

Dura mater

29

What is the middle layer of the meninges that contain spider webs of blood vessel?

Arachnoid

30

What is the inner layer of the meninges that rests on the brain and spinal chord?

Pia Mater

31

What do afferent tracts of the spinal chord do?

Carry sensory info from the body to the brain

ASCENDING FIBERS

32

What do efferent tracts of the spinal chord do?

Carry motor impulses from the brain to the peripheral nervous system

DESCENDING FIBERS

33

What two neurotransmitters do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system secrete?

Either acetylcholine or norepinephrine

34

What is a neuron that secretes acetylcholine?

Cholinergic fiber

35

What is a neuron that secretes norepinepherine?

Adrenergic Fiber

36

What three things does the pancreas produce?

Digestive enzymes
Insulin
Glucagon

37

In the pancreas, what specialized groups of cells produce insulin and glucagon?

Islets of Langerhans

38

At the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, what do alpha cell secrete?

Glucagon

39

At the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, what do beta cells secrete?

Insulin

40

What two things do the adrenal glands manufacture and secrete?

Manufacture and secrete sex hormones and certain hormones that are vital in maintaining body’s salt and water balance

41

What is the middle part of the adrenal glands called?

Medulla

42

In adrenal glands, what two things does the medulla produce?

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

43

In the adrenal gland, what does the hormone "mineralocorticoids" do?

Balances salt and water levels

44

In adrenal glands, what three things does the hormone "Glucocorticoids" do?

Regulation of blood glucose
Metabolism of fat
Inhibition of inflammation

45

What are red blood cells also called?

Erythrocytes

46

What are white blood cells also called?

Leukocyctes

47

What is the mediastinum?

The space between the lungs in the center of the chest

48

What is the pericardium?

A thick, fibrous membrane that surrounds the heart

49

What two things does the pericardium do?

Anchors heart in the mediastinum,
Prevents over distention of the heart

50

What is the serous pericardium?

Inner membrane of the pericardium

51

What are two layers of the serous pericardium?

Visceral layer
Parietal layer

52

Where is the tricuspid valve located in the heart?

Between the right atrium and right ventricle

53

Where is the bicuspid (mitral) valve located in the heart?

Between the left atrial and left ventricle

54

Where is the pulmonary valve located in the heart?

Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

55

Where is the aortic valve located in the heart?

Between the left ventricle and the aorta

56

When does systole occur?

When the heart contracts and pumps blood from the heart valves and into the arteries

57

When does diastole occur?

When the heart relaxes and fills up with blood

58

What is cardiac output?

The amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system in one minute

59

What is stroke volume?

The amount of blood ejected from the heart per contraction

60

Stroke volume times Heart rate equals?

Cardiac output

61

What is Starlings law of the heart?

The length of the fibers of the myocardium determines the force of the heartbeat. An increase in diastolic filling equals an increase in the force of the heartbeat.

62

How many lobes does the right lung have?

Three lobes

63

How many lobes does the left lung have?

Two lobes

64

What membrane of connective tissues covers the lungs

Viscera pleura

65

What covers the viscera pleura (pleura cavity) of the lungs?

Parietal pleura

66

Where is the respiratory center located?

In the medulla

67

What is the main stimulation of respiration?

Accumulation of carbon dioxide

68

What three things make up the large intestine?

Cecum
Colon
Rectum

69

What is intracellular fluid?

Fluid found within the cell that is potassium rich

70

What is extracellular fluid?

Fluid outside the cells that is sodium rich

71

What do epithelial tissue do?

Lines all tubes in the body

72

What are four structures of the dermis

Sweat glands
Hair follicles
Blood vessels
Specialized nerve endings

73

What word means the functional unit of an organ?

Parenchyma

(Parenchyma of the lungs is alveoli)
(Of cardiac system is the heart muscle)

74

What are neurotransmitters?

Chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron to another "target" neuron

75

What two structural and functional categories are Adrenergic receptors classified as?

Alpha and Beta

76

What effect does alpha 1 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?

Vasoconstriction

77

What effect does alpha 2 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?

Vasodilation

78

What effect does beta 1 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?

Cardiac stimulation

79

What effect does beta 2 particles have regarding adrenergic receptors?

Bronchodilation

80

What does glucagon do?

Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose

81

What is hemostasis?

The cessation of bleeding

82

When is the enzyme thrombin formed?

When a blood vessel is injured

83

What happens when thrombin is formed?

Fibrinogen turns to fibrin, causing a mature clot

84

What is automaticity?

Ability of heart to generate impulse without any stimulus

85

What makes heart sounds?

Closing of valves in heart

(Mitral+tricuspid at systole
Aortic and pulmonic at diastole)

86

What artery carries deoxygenated blood?

Pulmonary artery

87

What vein carries oxygenated blood?

Pulmonary vein

88

What is another word for hypoperfusion?

Shock

89

What are the four kinds of shock?

Hypovolemic
Distributive
Cardiogenic
Obstructive

90

Where is the division of the upper and lower airway?

At the glottis

91

Why does the left lung have two lobes?

The heart takes up space

92

What is it called when falling oxygen levels stimulate breathing?

Hypoxic drive

93

What do antidiuretic hormone do?

Prevent you from peeing all the time

94

What is the ph of blood?

7.35-7.45

95

What is a buffer?

Compound that repeatedly neutralizes excess acids or bases

96

What system is the fastest way to get rid of access acid?

Respiratory system

97

What is the order of the cardiac conduction system? (5)

Sinoatrial node
Atrioventricular node
Bundle of his
Right and left bundle branches
Purkinje fibers

98

What is the term for having a stiff neck?

Nuchal rigidity

99

What are the three layers of a blood vessel?

Tunica intima
Tunica media
Tunica adventita

100

What is the inner most layer of the blood vessels?

Tunica intima

101

What is the middle layer of the blood vessel?

Tunica media

102

What is the outer layer of the blood vessel?

Tunica adventitia

103

When does coronary circulation occur in the heart?

During the diastolic phase

104

What is the formula for measuring blood pressure?

BP= cardiac output ✖️ SVR (systemic vascular resistance)