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Flashcards in Thoracic Trauma Deck (27)
0

Where does the diaphragm rise in an individual who is lying down or who has just completed exhalation?

Up to the nipple line

1

How many vertebrae are in the thoracic region?

12

2

If a patent injures their spinal cord at C5 or below, what could happen?

They lose their ability to innervate their intercostal muscles but can still breath.

3

If a patient injures their spinal cord at C3 or above what can happen?

Completely lose their ability to breath spontaneously

4

What is pleuritic pain?

Irritation or damage to the plural surfaces that causes a "sharp" or "stabbing" pain with each breath

5

What is hemoptysis?

Spitting or coughing up blood

6

What does hemoptysis indicate?

Damage to the lung parenchyma or air passages leading to lungs

7

What is a cardiac tamponade?

Accumulation of fluid in the pericardium

8

What is a pericardiocentesis?

Procedure where fluid is aspirated from the pericardium

9

How much blood can the lungs hold?

1500 mL

10

How much blood can the chest cavity hold?

2000-3000 mL of blood

11

What is pulmonary contusion?

Bruising of the lung.

12

What are three physical mechanisms for creating a pulmonary contusion?

Implosion effect
Inertial effect
Spalding effect

13

What is the implosion effect of pulmonary contusions?

Overexpansion of air in lungs after trauma which results in rapid, excessive stretching and tearing of the alveoli

14

What is the inertial effect regarding pulmonary confusions?

Strips alveoli from the heavier bronchial structures when accelerated at varying rates by a concussive wave

15

What is the Spalding effect regarding pulmonary contusion?

The gas exchange is disrupted by shock wave

16

What type of injuries are more common with pericardial temponade?

Penetrating injuries

17

How does fluid in the pericardium (pericardial temponade) effect the heart?

It prevents blood from filling during diastole which prevents blood from circulating adequately and lowers bp

18

What does centesis mean?

Puncture

19

What is the Beck Triad?

Classic signs for diagnosing cardial temponade

Narrowing pulse pressure
JVD
Muffled heart tones

20

What is the most common site of aortic rupture?

Ligamentum arteriosum

21

What Is the ligamentum arteriosum?

Where aortic shearing is most common

Part of the descending aorta at the isthmus just distal to the left subclavian artery

22

What are five findings of an aortic dissection/rupture?

Retrosternal or interscapular pain
Dysphagia
Ischemic pain of extremities
Decreased femoral pulse
Harsh systolic murmur over the precordium

23

Where is the precordium?

Anterior body that lies over heart and lower thorax or interscapular region

24

What three injuries do you restrict fluids?

Pulmonary contusion
Flail segments
Sternal fracture (if pulmonary contusion is suspected)

25

What are two signs of an aortic tear?

Unequal blood pressures
Unequal pulses

26

What is hemotemesis?

Vomiting blood