Flashcards in Intravenous Access Deck (47)
The cell membrane is composed of what two parts?
What is the hydrophilic layer of the cell membrane?
Outer layer composed of phosphate groups
What is the hydrophobic layer of the cell membrane?
The inner layer made up of lipids and fatty acids
What is an electrolyte called that has a positive charge?
What is an electrolyte called that has a negative charge?
What are three major cations of the human body?
What are three major anions of the human body?
What is a hypertonic solution?
There is a greater concentration of sodium out of the cell. Water is drawn out of the cell which causes the cell to collapse from extracellular osmotic pressure
What is hypotonic solution?
There is a lower concentration of sodium outside of a cell. Water flows inside the cell causing it to swell and possibly burst from increased intracellular osmotic pressure
Where are the three fluid compartments in the human body located?
Intravascular (inside veins)
Intracellular (inside the cell)
Interstitial (outside vascular system surrounding cells)
What are the five basic types of IV solutions?
What is tonicity?
The movement of water in relation to the sodium levels inside and outside of the cells
What fluid is used for patients who lost large amounts of blood?
Lactated Ringers solution
Where is the buffering compound lactate metabolized and what does it do?
It is metabolized in the liver to form bicarbonate
Who do you never give lactated ringer's solution to?
Patients with liver problems
(They can't metabolize the lactate)
What is an isotonic solution?
Has the same concentration of sodium as does the cell. Water doesn't shift and no change in cell shale occurs
What is D5W solution?
An isotonic solution that contains 5% dextrose in water. It is isotonic as long as it remains in bag but turns hypotonic when it is administered and quickly metabolized
What is normal saline?
An isotonic solution with .9% sodium chloride
What solution has close to the same osmolarity as serum?
What solution has an osmolarity less than serum?
What solution has an osmolarity higher than serum?
What do hypotonic solutions do?
Hydrate cells while depleting the vascular compartment
How many mL of isotonic crystalloid solution is needed to replace 1 mL of a patients blood?
What do crystalloid solutions contain?
Dissolved crystals (sugars, salt)
What makes crystalloid solutions a good choice for prehospital care?
The ability of the fluids to cross membranes and alter various fluid levels
What do colloid solutions do?
Since the molecules in the solution are too large to pass capillary membranes, they stay in vascular compartment and have high osmolarity so they draw fluid from interstitial and intracellular compartments into vascular compartments
What are colloid solutions made up of mostly?
How many gtt/mL do microdrip sets allow?
How many gtt/mL do macrodrip sets allow?
What does gtt mean regarding IVs?
How are catheters sized?
The larger the diameter of the needle, the smaller the gauge size
What is a good rule of thumb for choosing catheter size
The more distal the IV site, the smaller the catheter gauge size
What four colors do blood tubes come in to draw blood?
What is the pneumonic for the order of filling blood tubes while drawing blood?
What is the drip rate formula?
(Volume in mL✖️drip set)➗(Time in minutes) = gtt/Min
What are four things you need to include in your documentation regarding IVs?
The gauge of the needle
Type of fluid administered
Rate the fluid is running
What does antecubital mean?
Anterior to the elbow
What is the parenchyma of the kidney?
What are three crystalloid solutions?
Normal saline (.9% NaCl)
What does a bolus mean?
(Person weighs 220lbs
What is infiltration?
Fluids escape into surrounding tissues during iv
What is phlebitis?
Inflammation of the vein
What does KVO mean? (TKO)
Keep vein open (to keep open)
What does KVO equal?
Where do you deliver intraosseous injections?
In the tibia plateau
(Two fingers below tuberosity, one finger medially)
At what location do you insert an intraosseous injection?
In the tibial plateau