Flashcards in Pharmachology Deck (125)
What are the four major sources that medications have been identified from?
What three categories are drugs/medications classified by?
Class of agent
Mechanism of action
What are sympathomimetics?
Drugs that mimic the sympathetic nervous system.
What are sympatholytics?
Drugs that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system
What is the neurotransmitter used in the sympathetic nervous system?
What is the neurotransmitter used in the parasympathetic nervous system?
What is a commonly used parasympatholytic drug used for symptomatic bradycardia and exposure to certain nerve agents?
How does the drug atropine work?
It binds with acetylcholine receptors to prevent the acetylcholine from exerting its effect.
What four stages do drugs go through?
What are the seven forms of medication?
Meter dose inhalers
What three ways are drugs administered?
What does enteral mean?
Drugs that are administered though any portion of the GI tract
(Sublingual, buccal, oral, rectal, nasogastric routes)
What does parenteral mean?
Drugs that are administered any route other than GI tract
(Intravenous, intramuscular, intraosseous, subcutaneous, transdermal/transcutaneous, intrathecal, inhalation, intralingual, intradermal, umbilical injection)
What up does intravenous mean?
Into the vein
What does intramuscular mean?
Into the muscle
What does intraosseous mean?
Into the bone
What does subcutaneous mean?
Beneath the skin
What does transdermal/transcutaneous mean?
Thorough the skin (absorbed medications)
What does intrathecal mean?
Within the spinal canal (drug administered into the subarachnoid space)
What does intralingual mean?
Within the tongue
What does intradermal mean?
Within the skin (TB shots)
What are four drugs that are administered via the endotracheal route? (LEAN)
What is biotransformation?
The chemical alteration that a substance undergoes in the body
What is the primary organ for biotransformation?
What is idiosyncrasy?
A completely unique response in a particular individual
What are the six rights of drug administration?
What are elixirs?
Preparations taken orally made up of sweetened, aromatic, hydroalcoholic liquid
What are syrups?
Mixtures with a high sugar content that are designed to disguise the taste of medication
What are emulsions?
A mixture of two liquids that are not mutually soluble
What are six types of liquid drugs?
What does pharmacokinetic mean?
The movement of medication through the body
What does pharmacodynamic mean?
How the medication changes the body
Drugs that bind to receptors and create a response are called what?
Drugs that bind to receptors and block other drugs from binding are called what?
The minimum concentration required for a drug to produce its desired response is referred to as what?
The difference between a drug's minimum effective concentration and its toxic level is referred to as what?
What is potentiation?
Enhancement of the action of a drug by the administration of another drug
1➕ 1= 2
What is USP?
United States Pharmacopedia
What does idiosyncratic mean?
A unique response to a particular individual
What form is activated charcoal administered as?
What does the abbreviation PRN stands for?
What is in iatrogenic response?
An adverse condition induced by the treatment given
(UTI after catheter)
What is assay?
An analysis of the drug itself to evaluate its potency
What is bioassay?
Procedure to determine the concentration, purity, and or biological activity of a substance by measuring it's effect on an organism.
What are two techniques to analyze contents of a drug?
What are two types of receptors?
What is a neuromuscular junction?
Where nerves and muscles meet.
Where do nicotinic receptors function at?
Neuromuscular junctions is somatic muscles
What two things are nicotinic receptors triggered by?
What two things are muscarinic receptors triggered by?
What effects do nicotinic receptors cause?
Overstimulation of sympathetic nervous system
(Tachycardia, hypertension, twitching)
What effect does muscarinic receptors cause?
Overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
(sweating, blurred vision, vomiting, shortness of breath)
Will five drugs can be given endotracheal?
What is bioavailability?
How much of a drug is still active when it reaches its target organ
What is the first pass effect?
All blood coming from the G.I. tract passes through the liver before moving to other parts of the body
What are analgesics?
Maps that relieve pain
What do opioid agonist do?
Bind do opiate receptors
What are three kinds of opioid agonist?
What do non-opioid analgesics do?
Alter production of protaglandins and cyclooxygenase
What are three kinds of non-opioid analgesics?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
What is an example of a salicylate?
What is an example of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug?
What is an example of a para-aminophenol derivative?
What are opioid antagonist?
Reverse the effects of opiates by binding with opiate receptors
What is an example of an opioid antagonist?
What is an opioid agonist-antagonist?
Have agonist and antagonist properties
Reduce pain but do not cause dependents or respiratory depression
What is an example of an opioid agonist antagonist?
What are anesthetics?
Drugs intended to induce loss of sensation
What are two drugs that are anesthetics?
What kind of drug is Versed (diazepam)?
What kind of drug is morphine?
What kind of drug is etomidate?
Non barbiturate hypnotic
What do benzodiazepines do?
Slow brain activity
(commonly used before invasive procedure)
What are two examples of benzodiazepines?
What is a barbiturate?
Works like benzo's to slow brain activity
What is an example of a barbiturate?
What are non-barbiturate hypnotics?
Work like benzodiazepines and barbiturates but fewer side effects
What are two examples of non-barbiturate hypnotics?
What are two examples of anti-convulsants?
Valporic acid (Depakote)
What four problems can benzodiazepam and barbiturates be used for?
What do central nervous system stimulants do?
Increase the release of dopamine and norepinephrine to increase wakefulness and awareness
What four things in central nervous system stimulants cause?
What are three examples of CNS stimulants?
What is Ritalin also called?
What do psychotherapeutic drugs do?
Block dopamine receptors in the brain
What are two main types of psychotherapeutic drugs?
What are two examples of antipsychotic agents?
What are three examples of antidepressants?
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
What are three types of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? (SSRI)
What do anti-cholinergic medications do? (parasympatholytics)
Block acetylcholine from the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors
What is an example of a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist?
What do neuromuscular blocking agents do?
Drugs the blog at the neuromuscular junction
What are two examples of neuromuscular blocking agents?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulate what two types of receptors?
What are four types of Adrenergic receptors?
What is a common suffix for beta blockers?
What are four types of antiarrhythmic medications?
Sodium channel blockers
Potassium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers
What are two kinds of diuretics?
What do thiazides do?
Control the sodium and water quantities excreted by the kidneys
What do Loop diuretics do?
Lower the concentration of sodium and calcium ions in the body
What is an example of a loop diuretic?
What is an example of a vasodilator medication?
What is an example of antiplatelet agents?
What is an example of an anti-coagulant drug?
What do fibrinolytic agents do?
What is an example of a fibrinolytic agent?
What are two classifications of Acetylsalicylic acid? (ASA-aspirin)
What is the formula for converting lbs to kg?
Lbs / 2.2 = kg
Of multiply lbs by .45
What is the formula for finding the concentration of a drug?
Weight/volume=weight per ml of drug
What is the formula for the amount of drug to be administered?
Desired dose/ concentration of drug= volumed to administered
What is the formula for finding the drip rates of a drug?
(Desired dose/ concentration) X GTTS/cc= drops per min of drug
What is the principle neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic nervous system?
What are the two principle neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system?
The absorption, digestion, metabolism, and excretion of a medication deals primarily with what?
The mechanism of action of a drug deals primarily with what?
What is the main way drugs are eliminated by?
How long should the needle be and what gauge should you use for subcutaneous injections?
How long should the needle be and what gauge should you use for intramuscular injections?
What risk level do you have if there is a large therapeutic index?
What is the most common reason to give IVs?
How much medication should you administer endotracheally?
2-2.5 times the IV dose
Alpha 1 and beta 1 deal primarily with what?
Alpha 2 and beta 2 deal primarily with what?
What do alpha receptors do?