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Flashcards in Pharmachology Deck (125)
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What are the four major sources that medications have been identified from?

Plants
Animals/humans
Minerals
Chemical/synthetic products

1

What three categories are drugs/medications classified by?

Body system
Class of agent
Mechanism of action

2

What are sympathomimetics?

Drugs that mimic the sympathetic nervous system.

3

What are sympatholytics?

Drugs that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system

4

What is the neurotransmitter used in the sympathetic nervous system?

Norepinephrine

5

What is the neurotransmitter used in the parasympathetic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

6

What is a commonly used parasympatholytic drug used for symptomatic bradycardia and exposure to certain nerve agents?

Atropine

7

How does the drug atropine work?

It binds with acetylcholine receptors to prevent the acetylcholine from exerting its effect.

8

What four stages do drugs go through?

Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Excretion

9

What are the seven forms of medication?

Solid drugs
Liquid drugs
Meter dose inhalers
Topical medications
Transcutaneous medications
Gels
Gases

10

What three ways are drugs administered?

Inhalation route
Enteral route
Parenteral route

11

What does enteral mean?

Drugs that are administered though any portion of the GI tract
(Sublingual, buccal, oral, rectal, nasogastric routes)

12

What does parenteral mean?

Drugs that are administered any route other than GI tract
(Intravenous, intramuscular, intraosseous, subcutaneous, transdermal/transcutaneous, intrathecal, inhalation, intralingual, intradermal, umbilical injection)

13

What up does intravenous mean?

Into the vein

14

What does intramuscular mean?

Into the muscle

15

What does intraosseous mean?

Into the bone

16

What does subcutaneous mean?

Beneath the skin

17

What does transdermal/transcutaneous mean?

Thorough the skin (absorbed medications)

18

What does intrathecal mean?

Within the spinal canal (drug administered into the subarachnoid space)

19

What does intralingual mean?

Within the tongue

20

What does intradermal mean?

Within the skin (TB shots)

21

What are four drugs that are administered via the endotracheal route? (LEAN)

Lidocaine
Epinephrine
Atropine
Naloxene (narcan)

22

What is biotransformation?

The chemical alteration that a substance undergoes in the body

23

What is the primary organ for biotransformation?

The liver

24

What is idiosyncrasy?

A completely unique response in a particular individual

25

What are the six rights of drug administration?

Right patient
Right drug
Right dose
Right route
Right time
Right documentation

26

What are elixirs?

Preparations taken orally made up of sweetened, aromatic, hydroalcoholic liquid

ALCOHOL MIXTURE

27

What are syrups?

Mixtures with a high sugar content that are designed to disguise the taste of medication

SUGAR MIXTURE

28

What are emulsions?

A mixture of two liquids that are not mutually soluble

OIL MIXTURE

29

What are six types of liquid drugs?

Suspensions
Tinctures
Spirits
Elixirs
Syrups
Emulsions

30

What does pharmacokinetic mean?

The movement of medication through the body

31

What does pharmacodynamic mean?

How the medication changes the body

32

Drugs that bind to receptors and create a response are called what?

Agonists

33

Drugs that bind to receptors and block other drugs from binding are called what?

Antagonists

34

The minimum concentration required for a drug to produce its desired response is referred to as what?

Therapeutic threshold

35

The difference between a drug's minimum effective concentration and its toxic level is referred to as what?

Therapeutic range

36

What is potentiation?

Enhancement of the action of a drug by the administration of another drug

1➕ 1= 2

37

What is USP?

United States Pharmacopedia

38

What does idiosyncratic mean?

A unique response to a particular individual

39

What form is activated charcoal administered as?

A suspension

40

What does the abbreviation PRN stands for?

"as needed"

41

What is in iatrogenic response?

An adverse condition induced by the treatment given
(UTI after catheter)

42

What is assay?

An analysis of the drug itself to evaluate its potency

43

What is bioassay?

Procedure to determine the concentration, purity, and or biological activity of a substance by measuring it's effect on an organism.

44

What are two techniques to analyze contents of a drug?

Assay
Bioassay

45

What are two types of receptors?

Nicotinic
Muscarinic

46

What is a neuromuscular junction?

Where nerves and muscles meet.

47

Where do nicotinic receptors function at?

Neuromuscular junctions is somatic muscles

48

What two things are nicotinic receptors triggered by?

Acetylcholine
Nicotine

49

What two things are muscarinic receptors triggered by?

Acetylcholine
Muscarine

50

What effects do nicotinic receptors cause?

Overstimulation of sympathetic nervous system
(Tachycardia, hypertension, twitching)

51

What effect does muscarinic receptors cause?

Overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
(sweating, blurred vision, vomiting, shortness of breath)

52

Will five drugs can be given endotracheal?

Narcan
Atropine
Vasopressor
Epinephrine
Lidocaine

53

What is bioavailability?

How much of a drug is still active when it reaches its target organ

54

What is the first pass effect?

All blood coming from the G.I. tract passes through the liver before moving to other parts of the body

55

What are analgesics?

Maps that relieve pain

56

What do opioid agonist do?

Bind do opiate receptors

57

What are three kinds of opioid agonist?

Morphine
Fentanyl
Heroine

58

What do non-opioid analgesics do?

Alter production of protaglandins and cyclooxygenase

59

What are three kinds of non-opioid analgesics?

Salicylates
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Para-aminophenol derivatives

60

What is an example of a salicylate?

Aspirin

61

What is an example of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug?

Ibuprofen

62

What is an example of a para-aminophenol derivative?

Acetaminophen

63

What are opioid antagonist?

Reverse the effects of opiates by binding with opiate receptors

64

What is an example of an opioid antagonist?

Naloxone

65

What is an opioid agonist-antagonist?

Have agonist and antagonist properties
Reduce pain but do not cause dependents or respiratory depression

66

What is an example of an opioid agonist antagonist?

Suboxone

67

What are anesthetics?

Drugs intended to induce loss of sensation

68

What are two drugs that are anesthetics?

Lidocaine
Epidural

69

What kind of drug is Versed (diazepam)?

Benzodiazepine

70

What kind of drug is morphine?

Opioid

71

What kind of drug is etomidate?

Non barbiturate hypnotic

72

What do benzodiazepines do?

Slow brain activity
(commonly used before invasive procedure)

73

What are two examples of benzodiazepines?

Diazepam (Valium)
Midazolam (Versed)

74

What is a barbiturate?

Works like benzo's to slow brain activity

75

What is an example of a barbiturate?

Thiopental

76

What are non-barbiturate hypnotics?

Work like benzodiazepines and barbiturates but fewer side effects

77

What are two examples of non-barbiturate hypnotics?

Etomidate
Propofol

78

What are two examples of anti-convulsants?

Valporic acid (Depakote)
Dilantin

79

What four problems can benzodiazepam and barbiturates be used for?

Anxiety
Sedation
Sleep disorder
Convulsion

80

What do central nervous system stimulants do?

Increase the release of dopamine and norepinephrine to increase wakefulness and awareness

81

What four things in central nervous system stimulants cause?

Tachycardia
Hyperpretension
Seizures
Psychosis

82

What are three examples of CNS stimulants?

Amphetamines
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Cocaine

83

What is Ritalin also called?

Methylphenidate

84

What do psychotherapeutic drugs do?

Block dopamine receptors in the brain

85

What are two main types of psychotherapeutic drugs?

Antipsychotic agents
Antidepressants

86

What are two examples of antipsychotic agents?

Phenothiazine
Butyrophenon derivatives

87

What are three examples of antidepressants?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Trycyclic antidepressants

88

What are three types of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? (SSRI)

Prosac
Zoloft
Paxil

89

What do anti-cholinergic medications do? (parasympatholytics)

Block acetylcholine from the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors

90

What is an example of a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist?

Atropine

91

What do neuromuscular blocking agents do?

Drugs the blog at the neuromuscular junction

92

What are two examples of neuromuscular blocking agents?

Succinylcholine
Pancuronium

93

Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulate what two types of receptors?

Dopaminergic receptors
Adrenergic receptors

94

What are four types of Adrenergic receptors?

Alpha 1
Alpha 2
Beta 1
Beta 2

95

What is a common suffix for beta blockers?

-olol

96

What are four types of antiarrhythmic medications?

Sodium channel blockers
Beta blockers
Potassium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers

97

What are two kinds of diuretics?

Thiazides
Loop diuretics

98

What do thiazides do?

Control the sodium and water quantities excreted by the kidneys

99

What do Loop diuretics do?

Lower the concentration of sodium and calcium ions in the body

100

What is an example of a loop diuretic?

Lasix

101

What is an example of a vasodilator medication?

Nitroglycerin

102

What is an example of antiplatelet agents?

Aspirin

103

What is an example of an anti-coagulant drug?

Coumadin

104

What do fibrinolytic agents do?

Dissolve clots

105

What is an example of a fibrinolytic agent?

TPA

106

What are two classifications of Acetylsalicylic acid? (ASA-aspirin)

Antithrombic
Antipyretic

107

What is the formula for converting lbs to kg?

Lbs / 2.2 = kg

Of multiply lbs by .45

108

What is the formula for finding the concentration of a drug?

Weight/volume=weight per ml of drug

109

What is the formula for the amount of drug to be administered?

Desired dose/ concentration of drug= volumed to administered

110

What is the formula for finding the drip rates of a drug?

(Desired dose/ concentration) X GTTS/cc= drops per min of drug

111

What is the principle neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

112

What are the two principle neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system?

Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

113

The absorption, digestion, metabolism, and excretion of a medication deals primarily with what?

Pharmacokinetics

114

The mechanism of action of a drug deals primarily with what?

Pharmacodynamics

115

What is the main way drugs are eliminated by?

Urine

116

How long should the needle be and what gauge should you use for subcutaneous injections?

.5inch-1inch

22-24 gauge

117

How long should the needle be and what gauge should you use for intramuscular injections?

1-1.5inch

18 gauge

118

What risk level do you have if there is a large therapeutic index?

Low risk

119

What is the most common reason to give IVs?

Give fluids

120

How much medication should you administer endotracheally?

2-2.5 times the IV dose

121

Alpha 1 and beta 1 deal primarily with what?

The heart

122

Alpha 2 and beta 2 deal primarily with what?

The lungs

123

What do alpha receptors do?

Vasoconstriction

124

What do beta receptors do?

Vasodilation