Flashcards in Obstetric Emergencies Deck (45)
What is an ovum?
A mature egg
What is oogenesis?
The process of oocytes undergo maturation into ovum
What hormone stimulates production of fetal development?
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
What's the timeline you developing zygote is called an embryo?
Fertilization- 8 weeks
When is a fetus developed?
9 weeks after fertilization
What do the two arteries in the umbilical cord carry?
Deoxygenated blood and waste products away from the FETUS
What does the vein in the umbilical cord carry?
Oxygenated blood and nutrients towards the FETUS
What term is used to describe the number of times a woman has been pregnant?
What term is used to describe the number of times a pregnant woman has delivered a viable baby?
What term is used to describe a woman who has delivered 7 or more viable babies?
What term is used to refer to a woman who has never delivered a viable baby?
What's the timeline or the first trimester?
Last menstrual cycle to 12 weeks
When does the second trimester extend to?
Week 13 to week 27
When does the third trimester extend?
Week 28 to term/40 weeks
What does discoloration and smelly amniotic fluid indicate?
Meconium in the amniotic fluid which is a sign of fetal distress
What is the most common place to find an ectopic pregnancy?
What is eclampsia?
Seizure in pregnant woman who has preeclampsia and no other cause of seizures
What side should a pregnant pt lay down if she has supine hypotension syndrome?
Placed on her left side because the inferior vena cava is found slightly on the right for most people
What is gestational diabetes?
Pregnant pt has problem metabolizing carbohydrates
The pancreas will secrete insulin however progesterone makes cells resistant to re uptake of insulin
Blood glucose levels increase because they can't enter cells so body secretes more insulin to compensate
What happens with the condition placenta previa?
The placenta starts to grow at the bottom of the uterus over the cervical os.
During near term small blood vessels are torn and bright red bleeding goes out the vagina
What is abruptio placentae/ placental abruption?
The placenta separates from endometrium.
There are many blood vessels that attach the two so severe hemorrhaging occurs
What is placental abruption caused by? (3)
Occurs spontaneously from:
What are signs of placental abruption? (3)
Severe abdominal pain
Dark cenous blood from vagina
What is the endometrium?
Inner most layer of uterine wall
What is the myometrium?
Thick smooth muscle that firms middle layer of uterine wall
What is the perimetrium?
Serous membrane coating that forms the outside of the uterine wall
What is a uterine rupture?
Uterine wall tears from trauma and fetus and amniotic fluid are exposed to internal abdomen
What is a sign of uterine rupture?
Palpating fetal body parts through abdomen wall
When is the first stage of labor?
Onset of contractions and ends when the cervix is fully effaced and dilated (crowning)
When is the second stage of labor?
Crowning to delivery of baby
When is the third stage of labor?
Delivery of baby to delivery of placenta
What is meconium?
Baby's first bowel movement
What are Braxton-Hicks contractions?
False labor that have:
No regular pattern
No increase in intensity
No pain or little pain
What is the problem if meconium is found in amniotic fluid?
It could be aspirated into baby's lungs and cause life threatening sepsis
How long are contractions if pregnancy is imminent?
Less than 5 minutes
What questions should you ask pregnant pt if you were determining to deliver baby? (8)
How many weeks gestation are you
Is this your first
Are you having contractions/how far apart
Do you need to move your bowels
Have you been spotting/bleeding
Did your water break
Have you had previous children
Were they cesarean section
Where do you clamp the umbilical cord?
7 inches from infants body and the second is 3 inches farther
Cut between clamps
How much pressure should you out on head as it comes out of vagina?
Slight pressure so it comes out smoothly and doesn't cause trauma to the baby
What do you suction first? Mouth or nose?
Suction mouth first
If you suction nose first it could stimulate infant to breath and aspirate the fluid in mouth
Where should you keep the infant before the cord is cut?
At same level as vagina or lower
If it is higher than vagina it can cause infant hypovolemia
What two things help control bleeding after delivery?
Massaging the uterus (circular motion)
When are the only two circumstances you should insert your fingers into a vagina?
Umbilical cord presentation
What is menarche?
The initial onset of menstruation that occurs during puberty
What is dysmenorrhea?