Flashcards in IFSTA(5th)-Chapter 4 Deck (96):
national institute for occupational safety and health
two or more interconnected structural members designed to meet a specific function
type of wood-frame construction that has continuous vertical studs in exterior walls that run from foundation to roof
joists made of steel usually found in office buildings.
high strength to weight ratio
roof assembly with an arched chord on top and a horizontal chord on the bottom of the truss assembly.
v-shaped roof with the valley in the middle. not in cold weather locations.
only one end is supported.
more susceptible to collapse
main structural members of a truss system that run the length of the truss. on the top and bottom separated by the diagonals.
open space between ceiling and roof. usually found in commercial occupancies with flat roofs.
vertical supporting column
horizontal layer of masonry units
non-load bearing wall that runs down from the roof or ceiling to limit horizontal fire spread.
non-load bearing wall used as a weather barrier
planks or sheets of plywood or oriented strand board that form the base of a roof assembly.
fire rated door assembly that is designed to confine fire and is triggered to close upon fire alarm activation.
total potential heat release if all contents burn
fire-rated wall that runs from the foundation to the roof to limit fire spread.
pitched roof with sides sloping down to the eaves.
wall that rises to meet the ends of gable roofs
single ridge roof with two different pitches on each side.
commonly found on barns
horizontal structure member used to support beams or joists.
wooden or metal plate used to join structural members.
most often used in trusses.
susceptible to early failure if just pressed in and not nailed or screwed
course of bricks laid with the ends facing outward.
only used in unreinforced masonry.
pitched roof where the ends are beveled
accessible or inaccessible space between layers of building materials.
horizontal structure members that support a ceiling or floor
roof that has steep slopes that surround a flat section in the center
open web joist
joist constructed with a web of bars or tubes that do not fill the entire web space
oriented strand board
wooden structural panel formed by gluing and compressing wood strands together under pressure
parallel chord truss
truss with top and bottom chords parallel to each other.
wall at the edge of some roofs that extend above the roof.
load-bearing fire wall that is shared by two adjoining buildings.
the slope of the roof
the top or bottom horizontal member of a frame wall.
frame type construction in which each floor interrupts the exterior studs forming an effective fire stop at each floor. most common type of construction for residences.
beams that support roof decking and run from ridge to the exterior wall plate.
an assembly of two or more construction components that has a specific fire-resistance rating.
a roof with a profile of vertical and sloping surfaces that resemble a saw blade.
plywood, OSB, or wooden planking applied to a roof or wall over which a weather-resistant covering is applied.
a pitched roof that slopes in only one direction from the ridge.
vertical structural member in a frame wall.
force that pulls the mass of a material apart
structural unit made up of one or more triangles in a flat plane.
interior non-load bearing wall used to divide areas
The reaction of wood to fire conditions depends on two factors.
size and moisture content
walls that extend beyond the structure that supports them.
walls with an attractive surface covering layer that is over a base of common material.
Cast Iron primary concern
bolts/connections can fail
Steel elongates when heated. At 1000 degrees F a 50' beam elongates _____. at this Temp. steel can fail!
concrete warning signs
cracking or spalling
inorganic product from which plaster and drywall are constructed. it has a high water content and absorbs a lot of heat.
International Code Council
Building Construction and Safety Code
Std. on Types of Building Construction
Type I - construction that _____
maintains its structural integrity during a fire.
Type II - construction made _____
of the same materials as type I except that the structural components lack the insulation or other protection of type I construction.
Type I strengths
resists flame impingement.
little collapse potential from fire alone.
impervious to water damage.
Type I weaknesses
difficult to breach
difficult to ventilate
if collapse, massive debris
Type II strengths
almost as fire resistive as type I
almost as structurally stable as type I
easier to vertically ventilate than type I
Type II weaknesses
difficult to breach
unprotected steel may fail
roof systems less stable than type I
steel components susceptible to rust/corrosion
if collapse, massive debris
Type III - construction that ____
requires exterior walls and structural members be made of non-combustible or limited combustible materials.
Type III primary fire concern is ____
fire and smoke spread thru concealed spaces.
Type III strengths
resists fire spread from the outside
relatively easy to vertically ventilate
Type III weaknesses
interior structural members vulnerable to fire
fire spread thru concealed spaces
Susceptible to water damage
Type IV construction has interior structural members made of ____
solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces with dimensions large enough to be considered heavy timber.
Heavy Timber construction requires exterior/interior structural members be ______ non-combustible or limited combustible
non-combustible or limited combustible
Type IV primary fire hazard is ____
massive amounts of combustible structural timbers in addition to the contents.
Type IV strengths
relatively easy to ventilate
relatively easy to breach
manageable debris if collapse
Type IV weaknesses
susceptible to fire spread from the outside.
potential for fire spread to exposures.
susceptible to rapid interior fire spread
susceptible to water damage
Type V construction that has ____
exterior walls, load-bearing walls, floors, roofs, and supports made completely or partially of wood or other approved materials of smaller dimensions than heavy timber.
Type V strengths
collapse debris relatively easy to manage
resistant to collapse from earthquake due to lightweight and flexibility
Type V weaknesses
susceptible to fire spread for outside
susceptible to rapid fire spread inside
susceptible to total collapse
susceptible to water damage
a durable finish for exterior walls usually made of cement, sand, and lime. it is applied wet.
a fine plaster for interior ornamentation, molding.
hvac, water tanks, or other heavy objects on the roof.
2 dangerous types of conditions posed by a particular building
conditions that contribute to fire spread
conditions that contribute to collapse
total amount of combustible material
Be wary of combustible ______ and _______ that contribute to fire spread.
Roof covering materials
rubber imitation tile
steel imitation tile or shakes
tar and gravel
_______ , even when treated with fire retardant can significantly contribute to fire spread. (roof material)
Name one main concern with large open spaces under fire conditions.
heat at roof level maybe extreme while floor level hat may be minimal.
distance extending horizontal from the base of the exterior wall.
= 1.5 x height of the wall
CZ = 1.5H
11 indicators of building collapse
cracks/separations in walls, floors, ceilings, roofs.
tie rods/stars present.
loose bricks, blocks, stones.
distorted structural members
fires beneath floors with heavy equipment.
prolonged fire exposure
structural members pulling away from walls.
excessive weight of contents
2 FF ops that may contribute to collapse are ______
improper vertical ventilation that cuts structural supports.
lots of water used during extinguishment can add large amounts of weight to the building.
type of gusset plate made of metal that have points or prongs that penetrate about 3/8" into wood.
Unprotected lightweight trusses can fail after ____ minutes
Truss top chord is under _____ forces.
Truss bottom chords are under ______ forces.
If one member of a truss fails, the ______
entire truss is likely to fail