IFSTA(5th)-Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

Keith's Cards > IFSTA(5th)-Chapter 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in IFSTA(5th)-Chapter 4 Deck (96):
0

NIOSH

national institute for occupational safety and health

1

Assemblies(construction)

two or more interconnected structural members designed to meet a specific function
Examples: trusses/frames

2

Balloon frame

type of wood-frame construction that has continuous vertical studs in exterior walls that run from foundation to roof

3

Bar joist

joists made of steel usually found in office buildings.
high strength to weight ratio

4

Bowstring truss

roof assembly with an arched chord on top and a horizontal chord on the bottom of the truss assembly.

5

Butterfly Roof

v-shaped roof with the valley in the middle. not in cold weather locations.

6

Cantilever Beam

only one end is supported.
more susceptible to collapse

7

Chord

main structural members of a truss system that run the length of the truss. on the top and bottom separated by the diagonals.

8

Cockloft

open space between ceiling and roof. usually found in commercial occupancies with flat roofs.

9

Column

vertical supporting column

10

Course

horizontal layer of masonry units

11

Curtain Board

non-load bearing wall that runs down from the roof or ceiling to limit horizontal fire spread.

12

Curtain Walls

non-load bearing wall used as a weather barrier

13

Decking

planks or sheets of plywood or oriented strand board that form the base of a roof assembly.

14

Fire Door

fire rated door assembly that is designed to confine fire and is triggered to close upon fire alarm activation.

15

Fire Load

total potential heat release if all contents burn

16

Fire Wall

fire-rated wall that runs from the foundation to the roof to limit fire spread.

17

Gable Roof

pitched roof with sides sloping down to the eaves.
most common

18

Gable Wall

wall that rises to meet the ends of gable roofs

19

Gambrel Roof

single ridge roof with two different pitches on each side.
commonly found on barns

20

Girder

horizontal structure member used to support beams or joists.

21

Gusset Plate

wooden or metal plate used to join structural members.
most often used in trusses.
susceptible to early failure if just pressed in and not nailed or screwed

22

header course

course of bricks laid with the ends facing outward.
only used in unreinforced masonry.

23

Hip Roof

pitched roof where the ends are beveled

24

Interstitial Space

accessible or inaccessible space between layers of building materials.

25

Joists

horizontal structure members that support a ceiling or floor

26

Mansard Roof

roof that has steep slopes that surround a flat section in the center

27

open web joist

joist constructed with a web of bars or tubes that do not fill the entire web space

28

OSB

oriented strand board
wooden structural panel formed by gluing and compressing wood strands together under pressure

29

parallel chord truss

truss with top and bottom chords parallel to each other.

30

Parapet Wall

wall at the edge of some roofs that extend above the roof.

31

Party Wall

load-bearing fire wall that is shared by two adjoining buildings.

32

Pitch

the slope of the roof

33

Plate

the top or bottom horizontal member of a frame wall.

34

Platform Construction

frame type construction in which each floor interrupts the exterior studs forming an effective fire stop at each floor. most common type of construction for residences.

35

Rafters

beams that support roof decking and run from ridge to the exterior wall plate.

36

Rated Assembly

an assembly of two or more construction components that has a specific fire-resistance rating.

37

Sawtooth Roof

a roof with a profile of vertical and sloping surfaces that resemble a saw blade.

38

Sheathing

plywood, OSB, or wooden planking applied to a roof or wall over which a weather-resistant covering is applied.

39

Shed Roof

a pitched roof that slopes in only one direction from the ridge.

40

Spalling

degradation

41

Stud

vertical structural member in a frame wall.

42

Tension

force that pulls the mass of a material apart

43

Truss

structural unit made up of one or more triangles in a flat plane.

44

Partition Wall

interior non-load bearing wall used to divide areas

45

The reaction of wood to fire conditions depends on two factors.

size and moisture content

46

Cantilever Walls

walls that extend beyond the structure that supports them.

47

Masonry

bricks
blocks
stones
cement
mortar
concrete
etc

48

Veneer Walls

walls with an attractive surface covering layer that is over a base of common material.

49

Cast Iron primary concern

bolts/connections can fail

50

Steel elongates when heated. At 1000 degrees F a 50' beam elongates _____. at this Temp. steel can fail!

4"

51

concrete warning signs

cracking or spalling

52

Gypsum

inorganic product from which plaster and drywall are constructed. it has a high water content and absorbs a lot of heat.

53

ICC

International Code Council

54

NFPA 5000

Building Construction and Safety Code

55

NFPA 220

Std. on Types of Building Construction

56

Type I

fire-resistive

57

Type II

non-combustible

58

Type III

ordinary

59

Type IV

heavy timber

60

Type V

wood frame

61

Type I - construction that _____

maintains its structural integrity during a fire.

62

Type II - construction made _____

of the same materials as type I except that the structural components lack the insulation or other protection of type I construction.

63

Type I strengths

resists flame impingement.
confines fire.
little collapse potential from fire alone.
impervious to water damage.

64

Type I weaknesses

difficult to breach
difficult to ventilate
if collapse, massive debris
retains heat

65

Type II strengths

almost as fire resistive as type I
confines fire
almost as structurally stable as type I
easier to vertically ventilate than type I

66

Type II weaknesses

difficult to breach
unprotected steel may fail
roof systems less stable than type I
steel components susceptible to rust/corrosion
if collapse, massive debris

67

Type III - construction that ____

requires exterior walls and structural members be made of non-combustible or limited combustible materials.

68

Type III primary fire concern is ____

fire and smoke spread thru concealed spaces.

69

Type III strengths

resists fire spread from the outside
relatively easy to vertically ventilate

70

Type III weaknesses

interior structural members vulnerable to fire
fire spread thru concealed spaces
Susceptible to water damage

71

Type IV construction has interior structural members made of ____

solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces with dimensions large enough to be considered heavy timber.

72

Heavy Timber construction requires exterior/interior structural members be ______ non-combustible or limited combustible

non-combustible or limited combustible

73

Type IV primary fire hazard is ____

massive amounts of combustible structural timbers in addition to the contents.

74

Type IV strengths

resists collapse
structurally stable
relatively easy to ventilate
relatively easy to breach
manageable debris if collapse

75

Type IV weaknesses

susceptible to fire spread from the outside.
potential for fire spread to exposures.
susceptible to rapid interior fire spread
susceptible to water damage

76

Type V construction that has ____

exterior walls, load-bearing walls, floors, roofs, and supports made completely or partially of wood or other approved materials of smaller dimensions than heavy timber.

77

Type V strengths

easily breached
collapse debris relatively easy to manage
resistant to collapse from earthquake due to lightweight and flexibility

78

Type V weaknesses

susceptible to fire spread for outside
susceptible to rapid fire spread inside
susceptible to total collapse
susceptible to water damage

79

Stucco

a durable finish for exterior walls usually made of cement, sand, and lime. it is applied wet.
a fine plaster for interior ornamentation, molding.

80

Dead loads

hvac, water tanks, or other heavy objects on the roof.

81

2 dangerous types of conditions posed by a particular building

conditions that contribute to fire spread
conditions that contribute to collapse

82

Fire load

total amount of combustible material

83

Be wary of combustible ______ and _______ that contribute to fire spread.

furnishings
finishes

84

Roof covering materials

wooden shingles
composition shingles
wooden shakes
rubber imitation tile
steel imitation tile or shakes
clay tile
slate
tin
tar and gravel

85

_______ , even when treated with fire retardant can significantly contribute to fire spread. (roof material)

wood shakes

86

Name one main concern with large open spaces under fire conditions.

heat at roof level maybe extreme while floor level hat may be minimal.

87

Collapse Zone

distance extending horizontal from the base of the exterior wall.
= 1.5 x height of the wall
CZ = 1.5H

88

11 indicators of building collapse

cracks/separations in walls, floors, ceilings, roofs.
tie rods/stars present.
loose bricks, blocks, stones.
deteriorated mortar.
leaning walls
distorted structural members
fires beneath floors with heavy equipment.
prolonged fire exposure
creaking/cracking noises
structural members pulling away from walls.
excessive weight of contents

89

2 FF ops that may contribute to collapse are ______

improper vertical ventilation that cuts structural supports.
lots of water used during extinguishment can add large amounts of weight to the building.

90

Gang Nail

type of gusset plate made of metal that have points or prongs that penetrate about 3/8" into wood.

91

Unprotected lightweight trusses can fail after ____ minutes

5-10

92

Truss top chord is under _____ forces.

compression

93

Truss bottom chords are under ______ forces.

tension

94

If one member of a truss fails, the ______

entire truss is likely to fail

95

Rain Roof

a second roof put over an older deteriorated roof.