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Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (56):
1

how does immunisation control communicable diseases

prevent onset of disease (primary prevention)
interrupt transmission
alter course of infection/disease to prevent or limit consequences (secondary prevention)

2

give examples secondary prevention immunisation

immunoglobulin e.g. Hep B, rabies, varicella zoster

3

how do vaccine work

teaches immune system to recognise pathogens, which helps to fight them

induce cell mediates immunity responses and serum antibodies

4

what are the immunity mechanisms

active immunity
passive immunity
herd immunity

5

what usually makes up antigens

usually proteins or polysaccharides (sugars)

6

how are antibodies produced

B cells- humoral immune system

T cells- cell mediated immune system (CD4+ and CD8+ cells)

7

where do B cells mature

bone marrow

8

where do T cells mature

in the thymus

9

what is passive immunity

transfer of pre-formed antibodies (immunoglobulins)

10

what are the mechanisms of passive immunity

mother to unborn baby (via placenta)

from another person or animal (blood donors, human normal Ig, specific Ig)

11

what are the two passive immunity vaccines

human immunoglobulin- Hep B, rabies, varicella zoster

anti-toxin- diphtheria, botulinum

12

what are the advantages of passive immunity vaccines

rapid action, post exposure, can attenuate illness, outbreak control, can be used if contraindication to active vaccination

13

what are the disadvantages of passive immunity vaccines

short term protection, short term window, blood-derived, hypersensitivity reaction, expensive

14

what are the mechanisms of active immunisation

natural infection, artificial immunisation

15

what are the two types of vaccine

live virus vaccines- attenuated organism replicates in host

inactivated vaccines- suspensions of killed organisms, subunit vaccines, conjugate vaccines

16

give examples of live virus vaccines

OPV (polio), measles, mumps, rebella, varicella, rotavirus, flu

17

give examples of inactivated viruses that are suspensions of killed organisms

whole cell pertussis, whole cell typhoid

18

give examples of inactivated viruses that are subunit vaccines

toxoids (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis toxoid)
polysaccharides (pneumococcal, typhoid)

19

give examples of inactivated viruses that are conjugate vaccines

polysaccharide attached to immunogenic proteins - Hib, Men C

20

what are the contraindications to vaccines

confirmed anaphylaxis reaction to previous dose

live vaccines- immunosuppression, pregnancy

egg alergy (yellow fever, flu)

severe latex allergy

acute or evolving illness

21

what is the role of herd immunity

protects unvaccinated individuals through having sufficiently large proportion of population vaccinated

vaccinated stop the transmission of the organism

22

what does herd immunity depend on

transmissibility and infectiousness of organism
social mixing in the population
requires that there is no other reservoir of infection

23

why should vaccination schedules be followed closely

as diseases might be age specific, risk of complications, ability to respond

24

what vaccinations may be given to at risk children

flu (annual), pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, BCG, hep B

25

what vaccinations do you get as adults

pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, shingles, seasonal flu, ones for travel/ occupation

26

what are the symptoms of diphtheria

sore throat, low grade fever, white adherent membrane on the tonsils, pharynx and or nasal cavity

27

what is in hexavalent (6 in one) vaccine

diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, haemophilus influenza type b, hepatitis

28

what causes meningococcal disease (meningitis, septicaemia, men&sept)

neisseria meningitidis

29

what are the persistent symptoms that can occur after meningococcal disease

persistent neurological defects- hearing loss, speech disorders, loss of limbs and paralysis

30

what are the vaccines you should have had at 2 months

hexavalent (DTaP/ IPV/ HiB/ HepB) menB, rotavirus, PCV

31

what are the notifiable diseases that are vaccinated against

diptheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, rubella, mumps, measles, hib, meningococcal

32

how is meningococcal disease spread

person to person contact through respiratory droplets of infected people

33

what is the incubation period for meningococcal disease

3-5 days

34

what is a common reservoir of meningococcal disease

colonisation of nasopharynx

35

what are the two age peaks of meningococcal disease

>5 years and 15-24 years

36

what are the symptoms of meningitis

fever and/or vomiting, severe headache, limb/joint/muscle pain, cold hands or feet/shivering, pale or mottled skin, breathing fast/ breathless, rash (non blanching), stiff neck, dislike of bright light, very sleepy/vacant/difficult to wake, confused/delirious, seizures

37

what strains of meningococcal disease are vaccinated against

A, C, W, Y135 and B

38

how do vaccine reduce burden of disease

prevent: acute infection, death, long term complications

39

how is the uptake of vaccines affected by deprivation

most deprived areas have lower uptakes up vaccines

40

what are the challenges to vaccination schedules

continual change and renewal (new evidence), flu (unpredictable), hesitancy of population

41

what is the elimination of disease

reduction to zero of the incidence of a specific disease in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts - continued intervention measures are required

42

what is the eradication of a disease

permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection as a result of deliberate efforts, intervention measures no longer needed (smallpox)

43

what is the extinction of a disease

specific infectious agent no longer exists in nature or lab

44

define the control of a disease

reduction of disease to locally acceptable level- continues intervention required

45

what is the elimination of INFECTIONS (as apposed to elimination of disease)

reduction to zero incidence of specific infection caused by specific agent

46

where do the majority of malaria cases occur

africa south of the sahara

47

what vaccines exists against non infectious conditions

CYT009-GhrQb- works against obesity, instructs production of anti-ghrelin antibody response (ghrenlin is a peptide regulator of eating behaviour)

BCG- (vaccinates against TB but also) bladder cancer treatment and on trial as treatment for type 1 diabetes

48

what diseases do you vaccinate against

diphtheria
rotavirus
meningococcal
Hib
Hepatitis B
measles
Mumps
rubella
HPV- cervical cancer
Flu
pneumococcal
shingles (adults)
polio
tetanus
whooping cough

49

what vaccinations do you get at 3 months

hexavalent (DTaP/ IPV/ HiB/ HepB)
rotavirus

50

what vaccinations do you get at 4 months

hexavalent (DTaP/ IPV/ HiB/ HepB)
menB
PCV

51

what vaccinations do you get at 12-13 months

men B, PCV, Hib/MenC, MMR

52

what vaccines do you get at 3 years 4 months- 5 years

MMR and DTap/ IPV

53

what vaccines do you get at 2 - 12 years

flu

54

what vaccinations do girls get at ages 12-13 (s1 and 2)

HPV (two doses)

55

what do vaccinations do children get at 13-14 years (S3)

Td/ IPV
menACWY

56

what vaccination is given opportunistically in secondary schools

MMR