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Flashcards in Development of the Nervous system Deck (34):
1

when does the brain start developing

in the 3rd week post conception

2

what do genes determine in the brain

sequence and evolution during neuronal proliferation, migration and reorganisation

development of dendtritic and axonal interconnections

the development of synapses, receptors, and neurotransmitters

3

when is the embryonic period

conception to week 9

4

when is the fetal period

week 9 to 40/42

5

what is gastrulation

process that results in the development of a three layered embryo

6

what does the ectoderm form

skin nails and neural tissue

7

what does the mesoderm form

muscle, bone, cartilage, vascular system

8

what does the endoderm form

gut and respiratory system

9

when does neural tube form

day 20-27

10

what does the hollow centre of the neural tube become

ventricular system and central channel of the spinal chord

11

what becomes the brain

the anterior/rostral tube

12

what becomes the spinal chord

the caudal tube

13

what is the importance of neural patterning

creates distinct functional areas in the brain

14

when does brain develop its folded appearace

fetal pariod (week 9 to term)

15

why are the development of gyri and sulci needed

to accommodate the proliferating neuronal populations

16

what cells can continue to divide within the brain in the fetal period

the progenitor cells (cells divide to make a progenitor cell and a neuron)

17

how do neurones migrate

somal translocation with radial glial guides

18

what happens when neurones reach their target cortical regions

develop processes which allow them to communicate and transmit information

19

what do axons do

transmit signals from neurones

20

what do dendrites do

gather info and transmit to neurones

21

how many neurones will die and how many connections will be eliminated in normal brain development

50%

22

what happens postnataly in brain development

proliferation and migration
myelination

23

describe myelination

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) develop processes which wrap around axons= myelin sheaths

24

what is the role of myelin sheaths

increase axonal conduction rates dramatically, maintain axonal integrity, survival, neuronal size and axonal diameter

25

when does most of myelination occur

in first 2 years of life

26

what is the importance of experience in brain development

Early experience of the postnatal brain is essential for the emergence of normal neocortical patterns

When input is lacking brain areas develop differently
Specific patterns of development reflect the kinds of input the infant and child received

27

what develops in the brain in adolescence

Establish nurturing and intimate relationships
Development of identity
Future perspectives
Independence
Self- confidence
Self control
Social skills

28

what happens to the brain in adolescence

many synapses eliminated
increased in white matter volume
changes in neurotransmitter system
anatomical reorganisation - associated with profound emotional and cognitive change

29

how does maturation occur in the brain

with synaptic pruning, is experientially determined

back to front (sensorimotor - frontal and prefrontal brain structures)

30

what do the frontal and pre-frontal cortex do

congitive functions, behavioural control, planning, assessing risk of decisions

31

what hormones affect the teenage brain and how

pubertal hormones (gonadal) affect the brains re structuring - permanent reorganisation

Estrogens may make girls more prone to stress
Androgens supposed to make boys more resilient to stress.

32

how does monocular vision in early post natal life affect brain development

alter patterns of organisation within the primary visual cortex

inputs from the active eye invade and subsume territory in the PVC normally occupied by the blocked eye

33

name two defects where formation of the neural tube is disrupted

anecephaly and spina bifida

34

how does malnutrition affect brain growth

impact myelination, decreases growth and volume