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Flashcards in Revision Deck (45):
1

what can cause disordered development

congenital/ genetic problems
prematurity
neglect

2

what can cause incomplete/ advanced development

immaturity
precocity (puberty too early)
disability

3

what are vital signs like in neonates

HR and RR high
BP is low

4

what causes RDS

born early without surfactant in lungs

5

describe bronchiolitis

viral infection that only affects children, only get it once, supportive treatment only

6

what is the biggest risk for teenagers

risk taking behaviour- drugs, alcohol, RTA

7

when do most paed deaths happen

in first year on life, especially at risk in first month of life

8

what is the main cause of child death

communicable diseases (infections)

9

when do you get a heel prick to test for cystic fibrosis

6 days old

10

what is cerebral palsy

group of disorders of movement and posture that are attributed to non progressive disturbances in the developing foetal or infant brain
often accompanied with disturbances of sensation, cognition, communication, behaviour, seizures

11

what increases the risk of cerebral palsy

premature, small, twin/ multiple births, maternal hypo/hypertension

12

what can cause cerebral palsy before birth

perventricular leukomalacia, congenital infection, injury in the womb

13

what is periventricular leukomalacia

a type of brain injury that is most common in babies born too soon (premature) or at low birthweight. The white matter (leuko) surrounding the ventricles of the brain (periventricular) is deprived of blood and oxygen leading to softening (malacia).

14

what can cause cerebral palsy during/after birth

HIE (Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy), meningitis, head injury, near drowning

15

what is hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

a type of brain damage that occurs when an infant's brain doesn't receive enough oxygen and blood

16

what potential problems do people with cerebral palsy face

gross/fine motor delay, speech/ communication, sleep disturbances, pain, high/low tone, low bone mineral density, salivation, nutrition, swallowing, seizures, orthopaedic issues (high tone causing dislocations)

social isolation, education, financial, stigma, independent living, living with chronic problems, behavioural issues, toileting issues, employment

17

when do you give children GH

GH deficiency (pan hypopituitarism), chronic renal failure, turners

18

will GH help constitutional grow delay

no

19

how will precocious puberty affect height

make you shorter

20

how can you suppress precocious puberty

give high levels of GNRH to suppress LH and FSH- given as 6 monthly injections

21

how do you plot bone age

with a filled in triangle

22

how do you asses disproportionate growth (e.g. skeletal dysplasia)

sitting vs standing height

23

when are you classified short

when you are below 2nd centile

24

when are you on a centile

+/- a 1/4 centile

25

what do you use to asses testicular volume

orchidometer

26

what is the average age for a girl to enter puberty in UK

11

27

what is adrenarche

greasy skin, spots, hair

28

what is thelarche

breast development

29

when after thelarche does menarche usually occur

2-3 years

30

when does a baby follow a face/moving object by turning its head

6 weeks

31

when do you develop palmar grip

6 months

32

when do you transfer toys from hand to hand

7 months

33

when do you reach out for toys

4 months

34

when do you sit without support without a rounded back

6 months

35

when do you raise your head 45 degrees when prone

6 to 8 weeks

36

when do you sit up straight without support

8 months

37

what test for prader willi syndrome

Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH)

38

what test for DiGeorge syndrome

Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH)

39

what test for turners syndrome

Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH)

40

what test for downs syndrome

Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (aCGH)

41

what test for sickle cell disease

next gen sequencing

42

is congenital hypothyroidism screened for in newborns

yes

43

are neurofibromatosis type 1, congenital heart disease, duchennes and osteogenesis imperfecta screened for in newborns

no

44

what are the contraindications to vaccines

severe anaphylactic reaction to previous dose of same antigen
Live vaccines in the immunocompromised
Severe latex allergy
Egg allergy (some flu vaccines and yellow fever)

45

name 3 live attenuated vaccines

yellow fever, MMR, BCG