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Flashcards in Developmental delay Deck (47):
1

what varies in development the sequence or the rate

rate

2

define developmental delay

failure to attain appropriate developmental milestones for child's corrected chronological age

3

what is global developmental delay

when 2 or more areas of development are delayed

4

give an example of a cause of global developmental delay

downs syndrome

5

what is specific developmental delay

when one area of development affected

6

name a cause of specific developmental delay

duchennes muscular dystrophy

7

what are the patterns of abnormal development

delay (global and specific)
deviation (e.g. autism)
regression (loose abilities previously acquired)

8

what can cause developmental regression

retts syndrome, metabolic disorders (genetic conditions causing biochem pathways to go wrong)

9

what is the average IQ

100

10

how many kids have autism

1%

11

give examples of specific learning disabilities

dyslexia, dyspraxia

12

an IQ less than what classifies as a severe learning difficulty

less than 50

13

what are the red flags for development

asymmetry of movement (power on one side, toppling over on one side)
not reaching for objects by 6 months
unable to sit unsupported by 12 months
unable to walk by 18 months (check CK for MD)
no speech by 18 months
concerns re vision or hearing
loss of skills- regression

14

when should you reach for things

3-4 months

15

what might cause no speech by 18 months

autism, hearing, understanding, problems forming words

16

what is ADL

activities of daily living

17

what is involved in medical screening in downs syndrome

cardiac
vision
hearing (Brachycephaly can impinge on tubes)
thyroid function (prone to underactive thyroid)
sleep related breathing disorders (sleep apnoea)
growth charts (short, more prone to obesity)
development

18

does developmental delay catch up?

no gap widens as get older, delay more like a percentage, reach peak at 16

19

what can cause motor delays

duchennes MD, cerebral palsy, co-ordination disorders

20

what can cause language delays

specific language impairment

21

what can cause sensory deficits and associates delay

oculocutaneous albinism, treacher collins

22

what can cerebral palsy cause a delay in

speech and cognition, motor

23

what is the inheritance of duchennes MD

X linked

24

how can you test for duchennes MD

high CK

25

why do you get an arched back in duchennes MD

weakness in pelvic girdle

26

why do some muscles appear very strong in duchennes

pseudohypertrophy- muscles replaced by fibrous tissue

27

what manoeuvre is seen in duchennes

gowers

28

what conditions are associated with cerebral palsy

mobility problems
spasticity
orthopaedic problems
learning difficulties
epilepsy
visual/hearing difficulties
communication difficulties
feeding problems
sleep problems
behaviour problems

29

what type of hearing loss is seen in treacher collins

conductive- bones not formed properly

30

what is the autistic triad

communication
social interaction
flexibility of thought/imagination

31

what types of behaviours are seen in autism

restrictive or repetitive

32

what language signs can be seen in autism

finding abstract language difficult
visually more able
echoes
odd intonation/pitch
can repeat chunks of video speak

33

what non verbal language can autistic kids struggle with

facial expression, eye contact, recognising intentions of others

34

how can autistic people struggle with the use of language

initiating and substaining conversation
restricted interests
lack of awareness of reciprocal nature of conversation

35

how can autism affect social interaction

joint attention and referencing difficult
turn taking hard
unable to share pleasure
no motivated by social approval
social rules
empathy
relationships
others point of view/ feelings

36

what is flexibility of thought like in autism

concrete and literal ideas
concept of time
routines
change in environment hard to cope with
ritualistic behaviour

37

what are the sensory issues in autism

fussy eater/ medications
textures of clothes
sleep
toilet training
hair washing/ cutting
nail cutting
noise

38

what should be included in a history about the pregnancy

preterm? alcohol, smoking, postnatal depression

39

what should be included in an exam in developmental delay

observation, dysmorphism, head circumference, systems, CNS including neurocutaneous, vision, hearing

40

what type of hearing loss in glue ear

conductive

41

what investigations of developmental delay

chromosomes
fragile X
oligoarray CGH

neonate PKU (metabolism disorder)
thryoid studies
CK

if indicated:
brain MRI
EEG (seizures)
metabolic studies
genetic consultation

42

what is the typical pattern for cerebral palsy

C pattern- spastic diplegia

43

what is the key to developmental delay

early intervention: special to each child- therapy (physio, SLT, OT), family support, education, referral

44

what type of hearing loss does sensorineural produce

worst at high frequencies

45

what type of hearing loss does conductive produce

worst at all frequencies

46

what is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss

glue ear

47

what condition is freckling of the axilla and cafe au lait spots seen in

neurofibromatosis type 1