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Flashcards in Obesity Deck (39):
1

what is the healthy BMI range for an adult

18.5-25

2

what is an overweight BMI in an adult

25-30

3

what is an obese BMI in an adult

>30

4

what BMI POPULATION centile puts a child at risk of of being overweight

>/= 85th centile

5

what BMI POPULATION centile puts a child at risk of of being obesity

>/= 95th centile

6

what is the clinical threshold centile for being overweight in children

>/= 91st centile

7

what is the clinical threshold centile for being obese in children

>/= 98th centile

8

at what age can BMI be used when height can be measured accurately

from age 2

9

how do you calculate BMI in children under 2

use BMI conversion chart

10

should waist circumference be used to calculate a child's BMI

no

11

do parents see their child as obese

no underestimate their childs weight

12

what are the risk factors for being overweight at 3 years

parental overweight
black ethnicity
greater birthweight
smoking during pregnancy
lone motherhood
pre pregnancy overweight
maternal employment >/- 21 hrs weeks
solid food before 4 months

13

how does breast feeding affect childhood obesity

breast feeding >/= 4 months is protective against children being overweight

14

what are 2 genetic causes of obesity

prader-Willi syndrome, bardet-biedl syndrome

15

what are the features of prader willi syndrome

a birth: floppy, ability to suck weak/ absent, tube feeding common

childhood: hyperphagia (food seeking and lack of satiety), reduced energy requirements due to low muscle tone

learning difficulties

hypogonadism

short stature

16

what are the features of bardet-biedl syndrome

visual impairment, renal abnormalities, polydactyly, learning difficulties, hypogonadism, obesity
hyperphagia (excessive eating desire)

17

what are the negative consequences of childhood overweight/obesity

poorer health in childhood (hypertension and metabolic disorders), lower self esteem, bullying, poorer school attendance/ achievements, poor adult health (obesity, CVS health...), poorer employment prospects

18

what lifestyle changes make biggest difference to weight

Combined dietary, physical activity and behavioural
programmes

parental involvement very important especially for pre teens

19

how do you asses childhood overweight/ obesity

BMI, eating habits, physical activity patterns, screen time, social and school history, emotional/ psychological issues, family support, stature of close family relatives, family history

20

what co-morbities are common in childhood obesity

metabolic syndrome, resp problems, sleep apnoea, hip and knee problems, diabetes, CHD, hypertension

21

when should you refer an obese child for paediatric review

serious obesity related morbidity that requires weight loss (benign intracranial hypertension, sleep apnoea, orthopaedic problems)
children with suspected underlying medical cause of obesity endocrine)
children under 24 months who are severely obese

22

what is the weight loss goal for severely obese children

maximum weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per month

23

hoe much of you're daily intake should free sugars be

= 5%

24

why are sugary drink so bad

low satiety, incomplete compensatory reduction in energy intake at subsequent meals, dental caries

25

how long should under 5s who are walking be active for

for at least 180 mins throughout the day

26

how should under 5s who arent walking stay physically active

encourage through floor based play and water based activities in safe environment

27

why is screen time bad

associated with obesity, snacks while watching, adverts of fatty foods, disrupted sleep

28

should under 18 months have screen time

no apart from video chatting

29

what screen time should 18-24 months have

high quality shows watched with parents to make sure they understand what they are watching

30

what screen time should 2-5 year olds get per day

less than an hour, watched with parents

31

what are good parenting strategies

modelling positive behaviours
change the environment not the child
make reasonable demands
effective praise
reward good behaviour, ignore bad behaviour

goal setting, contracting, control bad stimulus (unhealthy foods)

32

what is the pharmacological option for weight loss

orlistat

33

how does orilstat work

inhibits gastric and pancreatic lipase to reduce absorption of dietary fat

34

what are the GI side effects of orlistat

oily stools, faecal urgency, nausea, abdo pain

35

who should get orlistat

adolescents with very severe to extreme obesity/ severe obesity with co morbidities

only <12 when life threatening co morbidities

6-12 month trial with regular review

36

what are the surgical options for obesity

LAGB- acts like belt around the top of stomach to create a small pouch- limits amount eaten

RYGB- top section divided off by staples to form new pouch - food bypasses old stomach and part of small intestine

LSG- divides stomach vertically from top to bottom - reduces size of stomach

37

what are the complications of weight loss surgery

nutrient deificencies, hernias, wound infection, small bowel obstruction, cholelithiasis

38

who should get surgery

post pubertal adolescents with extreme obesity and severe co morbidities

39

how many children in P1 in scotland are at risk of being overwieght / obese

1 in 4