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Flashcards in Infections Slide set 5 Deck (28):
1

What are the 6 bacteria types?

  1. True Bacteria
  2. Filamentous Bacteria
  3. Spirochetes
  4. Mycoplasmas
  5. Rickettsia
  6. Chlamydia

2

Miroorganism/human relationship

Mutual relationship - Normal Flora - Relationship can be breached by injury + Leave their normal sites and cause infection elsewhere

3

Bacterial virulence and infectivity.

Bacteria must have iron to multiply (Siderophores) - Presence of polysaccharide capsules - Supression of complement activation - Bacterial proliforation rates can surpass protective response.

4

Bacteria can produce endotoxins and exotoxins whats the difference?

Endo- lipopolysaccharides contained in the cell walls of gram negative organisms. Pyrogenic effects Exo- Enzymes released during growth causing specific responses - Immunogenic - Antitoxin production.

5

Bacterial Sepsis? Associated with?

ARDS, DIC, Hemodynamic effects and renal failure.

6

Staphylococcus aureus is?

Gram positive bacterial sepsis.

7

Bacteremia or septicemia

  • Presence of bacteria in the blood due to a failure of the body’s defense mechanisms
  •  Usually caused by gram-negative bacteria
  •  Toxins released in the blood cause the release of vasoactive peptides and cytokines that produce widespread vasodilation

8

Respiratory infections: Pneumonia

Community acquired

Pneumococcal pneumonia (strepto pneumoniae)

Mycoplasm in young 

9

Nosocomial Infection? 

Pneumonia 

Staph aureus, Kleb pneumoniae, P. Aeroginosa 

10

Immunocompromised patients?

Pneumonia

P. Jiroveci 

11

Pneumonia Port of Entry 

  • Aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions 
  • Inhalation of aerosols
  • From blood bacteremia 

12

Explain how Pneumococcal Pneumonia gets in and infects the body?

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13

Respiratory Infections TB or Mycobacterium Avium complex 

TB has the ___ death toll of any infectious pathogen 

POA:?

TB---?

MAC in what type of patient?

How to detect TB?

  • Highest death toll
  • Airborne transmission 
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • MAC in immunocompromised patients 

 

Detected

  • Tubercle formation 
  • Caseous necrosis
  • Positive tuberculin skin test (PPD)

14

Respiratory Infections: Acute bronchitis

What is it?

Bronchitis causes similar symptoms as? But doesnt demonstrate what?

  • Acute inflammation or infection of the airways or bronchi
  • Symptoms like pneumonia but doesnt demonstrate pulmonary consolidation and chest infiltrates 

15

Respiratory Infection: Acute epiglottitis

Most common in?

WHat happens how serious?

What bacteria causes it?

Symptoms?

Treatment?

  • Children
  • Severe rapid progressive, life threatening infection of the epiglottis and surrounding area
  • Usually cause by Haemophilus influenzae type B
    • Incidence decreased by HIB vaccine
  • High fever, sore throat, inspiratory stridor, sever respiratory distress
  • Emergency airway and antibiotics 

16

What is a UTI ?

what are the 3 type?

  • UTI is inflammation of the urinary epithelium following invasion and colonization by some pathogen within the urinary tract
  • Complicated
  • Uncomplicated
  • Persistent

17

What are the common pathogens that cause UTIs?

  • E.Coli 
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Enterobacter spp

18

What is cystitis? Pertaining to UTIs

What are the symptoms?

How do you treat?

 

  • Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder
  • Frequency, dysuria(hurts to pee), urgency, and lower abdominal and/or suprapubic pain
  • Antimicrobial therapy, increased fluid intake, avoidance of bladder irritants, and urinary analgesics

19

GI infections? 

_____ seen with dysentery

One other pathogen 

  • Shigellosis
  • Campylobacter enteriris (Travelers Di)

20

STDs there are 5 bacterial STDs and diseases to go with them

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21

Sexually transmitted Urogenital Infections

Gonorrhea 

Cause by what species?

What type of bacteria are they? 

 

  • Caused by microorganisms of the species Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Aerobic, non–spore-forming, gram-negative, diplococcus
  • Presence of pili helps the microorganisms attach themselves to the epithelial cells of mucous membranes

22

Infections from species Neisseria gonorrhoeae can result in?

  • Disseminated gonococcal infection (CGI)  
  • Perihepatitis 
  • Ophthalmia neonatorum

23

How is gonorrhea transmitted?

  • Transmission generally requires contact of epithelial surfaces
  • Gonorrhea also crosses amniotic membranes
  • Humans are the only natural hosts

24

Syphillis 

Primary ___

Secondary ___

Tertiary ____ 

Latent ____

Congenital____

  •  primary: appearance of a chancre (painless ulcers on genitals)
  •  secondary: mucocutaneous eruptions widespread hematogenous and lymphatic spread
  •  tertiary: cardiovascular syphilis, neurosyphilis
  •  latent syphilis: asymptomatic but potential recurrent infections
  • congenital

25

Chlamydial infections 

Trachoma?

 

Leading cause of preventable blindness 

 

26

Nongonococcal or nonspecific urethritis

  •  Nonreportable STI
  •  Syndrome caused most commonly by Chlamydia trachomatis

27

What are other pathogens associated with urethritis?

  • Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Mycoplasma

28

Staphylococcus aureus infections

Commensal bacteria and _____ pathogen?

Super antigens?

Children? SSSS? others?

Hospital? 

SOFT PAINS?

  • Opportunistic pathogen 
  • Enterotoxin and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)
    • Cause immune overactivation ---> Toxic shock and food poisoning 
  • Impetigo and Staph scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)
  • Most common cause of food borne outbreaks 
  • Skin infection, Osteomyelitis, Food poisoning, Toxic shock syndrome, Pneumonia, Acute Endocarditis, Infective arthritis, Necrotizing fasciitis, Sepsis