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Flashcards in Muma Drugs Deck (58):

Reacts slowly to form CaCl2 and CO2 to cause belching

Calcium carbonate (


Reacts with HCl to produce NaCl and CO2 which causes belching and gastric distention.

Sodium bicarbonate


Reacts with HCl to form water and aluminum chloride or magnesium chloride. Magnesium salts not absorbed can cause osmotic diarrhea and aluminum salts can cause constipation so often used together.

Magnesium hydroxide & Aluminum hydroxide


H2 receptor Antagonists \?



Pk H2 All but ____ under go? resulting in? Cleared by both?Reduction in?

All but nizatidine under-go first pass metabolism resulting in 50% bioavailability. Cleared by both metabolism and excretion so need for dose reduction with severe renal dysfunction.


PD H2 antagonists Highly selective ________ ___ which inhibit___ ___ but especially basal ____ gastric acid secretion and pepsin. Inhibit ___ - ___ of acid secretion per day.

Highly selective H2 competitive antagonists which inhibit meal-stimulated but especially basal nocturnal gastric acid secretion and pepsin. Inhibit 60-70% of acid secretion per day.


Uses for H2 antagonists?

Can be used for infrequent dyspepsia/heartburn or prophylactically before meals. Rarely used for peptic ulcers. For critically ill pts with stress-related mucosal disease and upper GI ulcers used via continuous iv infusion. Available over the counter and as prescription.


AEs of H2 antagonsits

Extremely safe, < 3% diarrhea, constipation, headache fatigue, myalgias In elderly in intensive care or renal or hepatic dysfunction- mental status perturbation Cimetidine inhibits binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors and estradiol metabolism so increases serum prolactin resulting in possible male gynecomastia or impotence and female galactorrhea. Cross placenta and excreted in breast milk


DIs for H2 Antagonists

Competes with creatinine and with some drugs for renal tubule secretion Cimetidine inhibits P450 drug metabolism





What type of drugs are PPIs? What type of Coating? Dissolve where? Converted to a reactive? What does it do to the enzymes?

Administered as a prodrug. Acid resistant coating to protect from destruction by gastric acid, dissolves in intestine where drug is absorbed (weak base) and is concentrated in parietal cell canniculus. Converted to a reactive thiophilic sulfonamide which forms a covalent bond with active proton pumps irreversibly inactivating the enzyme. If taken 1 hr before a meal drug, there is maximal activation of pumps when drug is available for inactivating the pumps. Although t1/2 = 1.5 hrs, inhibition lasts about 1 day due to synthesis of new pumps. 3-4 days for full effect due to acid inhibition as well as 3-4 days for full recovery after cessation of treatment. Absorption diminished by food so must be taken on an empty stomach.


PD of PPIs

Inhibit both basal and meal-stimulated HCl secretion 90-98%/day Similar clinical efficacy among drugs in class


Uses for PPIs

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-provide symptom relief and tissue healing but symptoms often recur after discontinuation of drug resulting in the need for long term or intermittent therapy Peptic Ulcer -Rapid relief of symptoms and ulcer healing in 4-8 wks Useful for NSAID-associated ulcers and treatment of bleeding ulcers


AEs of PPIs

Safe, 1-5% diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain Reduction in gastric acidity- Can reduce release of vitamin B12 from food and reduce absorption of minerals such as iron, calcium, zinc and magnesium. Associated with increase hip fracture so for those at risk, monitor bone density and provide calcium supplements. Increased risk for respiratory and enteric infections since low pH is protective against bacteria. Increased risk of chronic kidney disease and mortality from it


DIs for PPIs

Alter absorption of drugs from stomach that depend on low pH


Mucosal Protective agents Sucralfate PD and PK

Sucrose complexed to sulfated aluminum In water or acid forms viscous paste that binds to the ulcer forming a barrier and stimulates mucosal prostaglandin and bicarbonate secretion < 3% absorbed


Sucralfate limited uses?

Upper Gi bleeding in critically ill and stress related bleeding


AEs of Sucralfate

Constipation in 2% due to aluminum Not absorbed systemically so no systemic adverse effects


Mucosal Protective Agents Prostaglandin analog Misoprostol analog of? PK and PD

Pharmacokinetics Orally available, rapidly absorbed and metabolized to active form t1/2 < 30min so 3-4 doses/day Pharmacodynamics Stimulates mucus and bicarbonate secretion Enhances mucosal blood flow Binds to prostaglandin receptors on parietal cells to reduce histamine-stimulated acid production


Uses for Misoprostol

Prophylactic use for NSAID induced ulcers


Misoprostol AEs and DIs

10 -20% diarrhea and cramping Causes uterine contractions so contra-indicated during pregnancy No significant drug interactions


Mucosal Protective Agents Bismuth compounds PK and PD

PK- Salicylate rapidly dissociates and is absorbed Bismuth excreted in the stool PD- Bismuth coats ulcers for physical protection Stimulates prostaglandin, mucus and bicarbonate secretion Direct antimicrobial effects, binds enterotoxins Antimicrobial effects against Helicobacter pylori Reduces stool frequency and liquidity in acute infectious diarrhea


Bismuth uses

Treatment of dyspepsia and acute diarrhea and prophylactically against traveler’s diarrhea Used in combination with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors for H. pylori infection


Bismuth AEs

Extremely safe Harmless blackening of stool and if liquid formulation also tongue


Abx for the Tx of H. Pylori only need to know 2

Clarithromycin and Metronidazole


Natural laxative product 1 What is it?

Psyllium- Indigestible hydrophobic colloid that absorb water to form a bulky gel that distends the colon and advances peristalsis, bacteria in colon can cause bloating and fart from nat product


Stool softener only one How does it work?

Docusate Surfactants allowing water and lipids to penetrate stool


Osmotice laxatives Mg Oxide Should be used in patients with?

should not be used in pts with renal insufficiency due to hypermagnesemia


Balanced polyethylene glycol What is it? Whats in it? No change in? Not associated with? Used for what?

Inert non-absorbable sugar balanced with isotonic solution of sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride No change in intravascular volume or electrolyte balance Not associated with cramps or flatus Used for colonic cleansing before GI endoscopic procedures and chronically for constipation at lower doses


Stimulant laxatives Diphenylmethane derivatives Biscodyl- Used for?

used for acute and chronic constipation, and in conjunction with PEG for colonic cleansing prior to endoscopy


Chloride channel activator?



Lubiprostone MOA? Used for?

Stimulates type 2 chloride channels in small intestine. Used for the tx of chronic constipation and IBS with constipation


Opioid receptor Antagonists



Methylnaltrexone Selective for? does cross? Used for?

alvimopan and naloxegol are selective mu opioid antagonists that do not cross the blood brain barrier. Used for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation and post-operatively.


Opioid agonists



Loperamide Doesnt?

cross the BBB


Bile salt binding resins



Cholestryamine PD

Conjugated bile salts are absorbed in the terminal ileum. Diseases of terminal ileum such as Crohn’s disease or surgical resection disturb bile salt absorption and may cause colonic secretory diarrhea. Bile salt binding resins bind bile salts to decrease diarrhea due to excess fecal bile acids.


Cholestryamine AEs

Bloating, flatulence, constipation, fecal impaction Further removal of bile acids may cause fat malabsorption


Cholestyramine DIS

Cholestryanine and colestipol may bind other drugs and decrease their absorption, so do not take other drugs within 2 hrs. Colesevelam does not alter absorption of other drugs.


Antiemtic Drugs 5-HT3 receptor antagonists



Palonosetron PK and PD

Anti-emetic actions through blockade of 5-HT3 receptors on extrinsic intestinal vagal and spinal afferent nerves and perhaps on the vomiting center and chemoreceptor trigger zone.


Palonosetron- 2nd generation with a?

longer t1/2 and higher binding affinity Selective- no antagonism at dopamine or cholinergic muscarinic receptors May slow colon transport but no effect on esophageal or gastric motility.


Palonosetron uses

Anti-emetic effects for emesis due to vagal stimulation such as post-operative or chemotherapy. Chemotherapy induced emesis- primary agents for use alone but can also be used in combination with dexamethasone or NK1 antagonist Used for nausea and vomiting induced by radiation therapy to the abdomen or whole body and post-operatively.


1. 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists AEs

Well-tolerated and generally safe Most common side effects are headache, dizziness and constipation.


Corticosteroids Antiemetics



Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists PK PD Uses AEs DIs



Aprepitant has 65% oral bioavailability.

Fosaprepitant is an iv infusion formulation that is rapidly converted to aprepitant.

Rolapitant- long half-life prolongs therapeutic effects



Selective neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist with antiemetic properties via central blockade of receptors in the area postrema.



Prevent and treat post-operative and chemotherapy-related nausea & vomiting

Less effective for motion sickness related nausea & vomiting

Used alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone (corticosteroid).


Adverse effects

Safe, well tolerated, few adverse effects reported but include fatigue, dizziness and diarrhea.


Drug interactions

Inhibit P450 metabolism (CYP3A4) and metabolism of drugs including some chemotherapeutic agents.


  1. Dopamine 2 receptor antagonists



D2 receptor antagonists 





Antipsychotics with antiemetic effects via dopamine & muscarinic receptor antagonism (phenothiazines) or for butyronphenones via central dopaminergic antagonism.

Sedative effects via antihistamine activity



In the past, used extensively for post-operative antiemetic and sedative effects.


Adverse effects

Extrapyramidal effects and hypotension


  1. Substituted benzamides



Substituted Benzamides 




Mechanism of antiemetic effect- dopamine receptor antagonisms

Trimethobenzamide also has weak antihistamine effects


Adverse effects

Via central dopaminergic antagonism- restlessness, dystonia, parkinsonism


H1 antihistamine anticholinergics






Hyoscine (scopolamine)


Diphenhydramine and dimenhydramine have both antihistamine and anticholinergic properties

Meclizine has antihistamine effects but limited anticholinergic effects so less sedating.

Hyoscine is a muscarinic antagonist.



Used to prevent and treat motion sickness.

Diphenhydramine and dimenhydramine used in combination with other agents for treatment of chemotherapy caused emesis.

Meclizine is used for preventing motion sickness and treatment of vertigo caused by labrynth dysfunction.

Hyoscine in a transdermal patch used extensively for motion sickness.


Adverse effects

Use limited by side effects- sedation, dizziness, confusion, dry mouth, cycloplegia, urinary retention




Enhance GABAergic neurotransmission

Used to reduce vomiting associated with anxiety or anticipatory vomiting related to chemotherapy





Used as an appetite stimulant and antiemetic

Used with other antiemetics, synergistic with phenothiazines and decrease adverse effects of both drugs.


Adverse effects

Euphoria, dysphoria, sedation, hallucination, dry mouth, increased appetite, tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension


Drugs for the Tx of IBS with diarrhea 


  1. Anti-diarrheal agents especially loperamide


  1. Mu and kappa opioid agonist, delta opioid antagonist


Decreases abdominal pain and diarrhea

Adverse effects: constipation, nausea, abdominal pain


  1. Tricyclic anti-depressants at low doses

Reduce pain

Normalize GI motility and secretions to reduce frequency and volume

No effects on mood


  1. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists

Alosetron approved for treatment of women with severe IBS with diarrhea

Efficacy of other 5-HT3 antagonists not examined

5-HT3 receptors in GI modulate visceral pain and intestinal motility

Alosetron- rare but serious GI toxicity limits use to women refractory to other therapies


  1. Bile salt binding resins

About 1/3 of people with IBS-D have bile acid malabsorption and can be treated with bile salt binding resins


  1. Antispasmodics


Used to reduce colon muscle spasms and pain


  1. Antibiotic

Rifaximin- GI specific broad spectrum antibiotic


Drugs for tx of IBS with Constipation 


  1. Polyethylene glycol and osmotic laxatives used to soften stools and increase frequency, but no impact on pain.


  1. Guanylate cyclase agonist



Adverse effects

diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, abdominal pain or distention, flatulence, headache


  1. Chloride channel activators



Stimulates type 2 chloride channels in small intestine, low systemic absorption

Used for the treatment of chronic constipation and women with IBS with constipation


Adverse effects

Nausea (29%),< 12 % headache, diarrhea, stomach pain or bloating, gas, vomiting, dizziness, swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs, discomfort in chest, tiredness


Drugs for the Tx of IBD


  1. Aminosalicylates

5-aminosalicylic acid differs from salicylic acid by addition of an amino group at the 5 position

Mechanism of action uncertain but thought to alter inflammation and immune responses.

Thought to work topically in the GI mucosa so several formulations used to limit absorption and aid in delivery to small bowel or colon.




Azo compounds





An aza bond to another 5-aminosalicylate or inert compound reduces absorption until drug reaches the terminal ileum and colon where an azoreductase cleaves the azo bond to achieve high concentrations of active compound at site of action.


Mesalamine compounds







Formulations designed to deliver 5-aminosalicylic acid to various segments of the small and large bowel.



Mild to moderate ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.


Adverse effects

Sulfasalazine has high incidence of adverse effects especially in slow acetylators due to sulfapyridine, up to 40% cannot tolerate.


Olsalazine causes stimulatory diarrhea in 10% of pts.


Some of the common side effects of aminosalicylates include abdominal pain, diarrhea, headaches, heartburn, nausea and vomiting.


  1. Glucocorticoids



Prednisone and prednisolone are the most commonly used oral glucocorticoids.

Hydrocortisone enemas, foam and suppositories used to maximize colon effects and diminish systemic absorption.

Budesonide is a high affinity synthetic prednisolone analog with high first pass effect, available in controlled release formulation for delivery to distal ileum and colon.



Via interaction with glucocorticoid receptors:

Decrease production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

Decrease inflammatory cell adhesion molecules.

Decrease transcription of nitric oxide synthase, phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2 and NFB.



Treatment of moderate to severe IBD.

Budesonide for mild to moderate Crohn’s disease since slightly less effective but with significantly fewer adverse effects.


Adverse effects

For treatment less than 2 weeks, very well tolerated, occasional peptic ulcer, and rare pancreatitis.

Extensive adverse effects for treatment lasting longer than 2 weeks


  1. Immune Modulators

Purine analogs


6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)



Bioavailability of azathioprine better than 6-MP, azathioprine converted to 6-MP

Short half-life but active 6-thioguanine nucleotide metabolites have a long half-life and are concentrated in cells



Immunosuppressive properties through an unknown mechanism

6-thioguanine inhibits purine nucleotide metabolism and DNA synthesis and repair leading to decreased cell division and proliferation



Induction & maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease

Help maintain remission in up to 80% of pts

Used to reduce dose or eliminate glucocorticoid treatment


Adverse effects

Nausea, vomiting, hepatotoxicity, bone marrow suppression

Monitoring of complete blood count and liver function tests needed

Leukopenia and liver dysfunction usually reverse with dose reduction

Hypersensitivity characterized by fever, rash, pancreatitis, diarrhea & hepatitis in 5%


Drug interactions

Reduce the dose of azathioprine and 6-MP by half in patients taking allopurinol because

allopurinol reduces purine analog catabolism.



Anti-metabolite used for a number of chronic inflammatory diseases.



Primary mechanism of action is inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme important in production thymidine and purines.




Induce and maintain remission of IBD


Adverse effects

At high doses- bone marrow suppression, megaloblastic anemia, alopecia and mucositis.

At doses used for IBD, uncommon but if occur, reduce dose

Folate supplements reduce the risk of adverse effects without reducing anti-inflammatory effects.



  1. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) therapy







Due to a long half-life, these drugs are given at bi-weekly or longer intervals for induction and maintenance of remission.



Monoclonal antibodies to human TNF approved for the treatment of IBD.

TNF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine dysregulated via TH1 T cell response in IBD, esp. Crohn’s disease.



Acute and chronic treatment of moderate to severe Crohn’s disease with inadequate response to other therapies.

Infliximab approved for acute and chronic ulcerative colitis with inadequate response to other therapies.

Median clinical response time is 2 weeks.


Adverse effects

Serious adverse effects occur in 6% of pts

Infection due to suppression of TH1 inflammatory response such as pneumonia & sepsis, fungal infections, viral infections, reactivation of latent TB and other opportunistic infections.

Acute adverse infusion reactions in ~10% characterized by fever, chills, pruritis, urticaria, cardiopulmonary symptoms, dyspnea or hemodynamic instability

Antibody production against the antibodies which eliminate the clinical response and increase the risk for infusion reactions.

Delayed(1-2 wks) infusion reaction in 1% characterized by myalgia, arthralgia, fever, rash, urticaria and edema. Usually requires discontinuation of therapy.

Rare adverse effects include hepatic failure, demyelinating disorders, hematological reactions congestive heart failure in pts with heart disease and lymphoma


  1. Anti-Integrin therapy




Integrins are adhesion molecules that allow circulating leukocytes to enter tissue

Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody against α4 integrin that prevents circulating leukocytes from entering tissues targeting brain and gut.

Vedolizumab humanized monoclonal antibody directed against α4β7 integrin. The α4ß7 integrin is expressed on the surface of a discrete subset of memory T-lymphocytes that preferentially migrate into the GI tract providing increased selectivity.



Approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Crohn’s refractory to other treatments.


Adverse effects


Acute infusion reactions and opportunistic infections.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy a rare infection of the brain that cannot be treated, prevented, or cured and that usually causes death or severe disability. The risk for PML is higher with one or more of the following risk factors: treatment for longer than 2 years, previous treatment with immunosupressants (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mitoxantrone, and mycophenolate mofetil), exposure to JC virus.

Hepatotoxicity with jaundice in 0.1% -discontinue if occurs

Vedolizumab- no PML reported


  1. Antibiotics



Used to treat infections resulting from IBD


Tx of Celiac Disease 

Life-long gluten-free diet accomplished by excluding wheat, rye and barely from the diet,    oats should also be excluded due to contamination issues.

Initial supplements with iron, calcium, phosphorous, folate, B12 and fat-soluble vitamins as needed.

Refractory disease can be treated with corticosteroids such as budesonide or anti-inflammatory drugs such as azathioprine.


Untreated celiac disease damages the small intestine and interferes with nutrient absorption.

Without treatment, people with celiac disease can develop complications such as            osteoporosis, anemia, and cancer.