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Flashcards in Last Moise Quiz Deck (27):
1

Fluoroquinolones?

One is specific for upper and lower respiratory tract infections?

 

Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, floxacin 

Levofloxacin

2

Terbinafine and Azoles both block synthesis of?

Ergosterol 

3

Blocks Dihydrofolate reductase

Pyrimidines 

4

Block dihydropteroate synthase

Sulfonamides 

5

Sulfonamides are good for? 

Generally use as? 

Adverse effects?

  • Uncomplicated UTIs
  • Hematopoietic disturbances
  • interacts with warfarin

 

6

Adverse effects of Fluoroquinolones?

How do they work?

  • Prolonged QT
  • Neuropathy
  • Cartilage degradation, Achilles tendon
  • Should be avoided during pregnancy 

They block bacterial DNA synthesis by inhibiting bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and Topo IV

7

Combination of sulfonamide with timethoprim is?

Synergistic becasue it blocks the process in two different steps. 

8

How to fungal infections invade and evade destruction

 

  • Intracellular survival (switch from yeast to more virulent)
  • Inhibit phagocytosis
  • Antigenic Variation
  • Immune suppression 
  • Tissue damage by triggering inflammatory response

9

Disease caused by fungi?

Fungi that invade the skin, hair, or nails? They are specifically called?

Deep fungal infections are ____ threatening

 

 

mycoses

dermatophytes, tineas (ringworm)

life threatening

 

10

Polyene macrolide like amphotericin B 

is too toxic for parenternal admin and only used topically

 

Nystatin

11

WHAT IS THIS?

Q image thumb

Yeast 

12

Rifamycin is a? 

What is its MOA?

 

 

Antimycobacterial Drug that inhibits the synthesis of RNA by targeting RNA polymerase 

13

Using ABXs can cause? 

Medical devices can also cause _____ invasion

_____ is a major cause of fungal sepsis and septic shock (HTN, tachycardia) 

 

Thrush

candidiasis invasion

Candidemia

14

Binds to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane forming pores 

  • Broad spectrum with good activity against candida, cryptococcus

Adverse effects?

Amphotericin B

AE: Infusion related rxns, nephrotoxicity. 

15

Oral and topical fungicidal that blocks ergosterol synthesis at an earlier step than azoles

Terbinafine

16

Oral fungistatic used for dermatophytosis

 

Griseofulvin

17

Nucleoside Analog

Blocks DNA and RNA polymerization

Treats Cryptococcus associated meningitis 

AE?

Flucytosine

Bone marrow toxicity with anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia

18

Inhibits fungal wall synthesis, good for invasive candidiasis

Fungin

19

Grow as ovoid or spherical, single cells multiply by budding and division

(Histoplasma)

Yeast

20

Fungal Infections 

  • Eukaryotic Cells with _____ walls
  • Can grow as molds or yeasts
  • ______ can be both 
  • Resistant to ________ wall
  • Pathogenicity?

 

  • Rigid cell walls
  • Candida albicans 
  • bacterial cell wall inhibitors 
  • Can adapt to a wide variety of temperatures, digest keratin, low oxygen, they also suppress the immune systems defense

21

Isoniazid is responsible for? 

MOA?

Cell wall inhibition of mycobacteria it inhibits mycolic acid synthesis 

22

Inhibition of protein synthesis by targeting the 30S ribosomal subunit. 

Used as an Anti what?

Antimycobacterial 

Streptomycin

23

Block ergosterol synthesis from lanosterol 

broad spectrum for candida, C neoformans, endemic mycoses 

Metabolized by CYP3A4

Azoles

24

Maturatio of TB

Cellular ______?

-

_____ granuloma

______

Granuloma

Necrotic Granuloma

Cavity 

25

A fungal infection is also referred to as?

Mycosis

26

Filamentous fungi growth as multinucleate, branching hyphae (branching), ringworm is a common one. Also these are more pathogenic

MOLds 

27

Why are mycobacteria (like TB) difficult to treat?

  1. Slow growth or become dormant to evade
  2. intracellular pathogens cannot be reached by immune factors (Ab,C) and drugs 
  3. lipid rich cell wall of the bacteria is impermeable to many agents 
  4. Incredibly good at aquiring resistance to drugs