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What are the effects if someone is castrated before puberty?

Longer bones, little sexual behaviour, no beards or deep voice


What was found in Berthold’s experiment on chickens?

Castrated chickens before sexual maturity prevented male sexual and aggressive behaviour and other secondary sexual characteristics

Re implanting testis produced normal male characteristics


What are hormones?

The chemical messengers which speeding from cell to cell along the blood stream, may coordinate the activities and growth of different parts of the body


What are the three main chemical classes that hormones fall into?

Proteins, steroids and amines


What are cells called that express hormone receptors?

Target cells


What are tinbergens 4 questions?

1. Proximate control of causation- how does it work?
2. Development or ontogeny- how did it develop?
3. Evolution or phylogeny- why did it evolve?
4. Function- what is it for?


What was found in the winner effect study on mice?

Prior wins with other mice increased the likelihood of winning the test encounter

Blood testosterone on the test day increased with prior winning experience


What is ablation?

The removal of a suspected source of a hormone e.g. surgical removal of a gland like the testis