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Flashcards in Sex Differences 3 Deck (17)
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What needs to be present for a hormone to work?



What are steroids able to do because they are lipid soluble?

Can cross the cell membrane easily to bind to intercellular receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus


What do proteins and other water soluble hormones do because they can’t pass through the cell membrane?

Bind to cell surface receptors that activate intracellular signal transduction pathways


What do G proteins do?

Activate adenylate cyclase which produced cAMP in the cell

cAMP is a second messenger


What are the two things that genetic variability with sexual reproduction allows?

1. Faster adaptation to changing conditions
2. Better defence against pathogens


What is sexual dimorphism?

Differences in body size and shape, physiology and behaviour


When is the first time gonads are observed in embryos?

When the germinal ridge develops


What happens if the SRY gene is not transcribed?

No testis determination factor (TDF) is produced and the outer part of the germinal ridge develops into an ovary


What are the male and female ducts called?

Female: Mullerian
Male: wolffian


What are the two key testicular hormones and what do they do?

Testosterone and mullerian inhibitory hormone

Promote the regression of the Müllerian ducts and formation of male structures


What are the chromosomes for males and females in birds?

Females= heterogametic ZW
Males= homogametic ZZ


What are gynandromorph chickens?

Half male half female


What was concluded in Zhao et al.’s study on the chicken?

Sex is assigned to cells at fertilisation in avian sex determination- hormonal influence is secondary because the left and right halves exposed to the same hormones


What happens if a female quail is exposed to male hormones?

She will show mounting behaviour so male behaviour will develop


What happens if a male quail is exposed to female hormones?

They stop their mounting behaviour


What do protogynous and protandrous fish do?

Protogynous fish change from female to male
Protandrous fish change from male to female


What do sneaker fish do?

Turn male without colour change allowing them to enter a terminal males territory undetected to fertilise eggs