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Flashcards in Stress And Behaviour 10 Deck (17)
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1

What are some examples of stress and unpredictability in the environment?

Drought and extreme weather events

2

What are some predictable factors that animals can prepare for to prevent stress?

Seasonality

3

What is the emergency life history stage?

If an animal experiences a severe perturbation it can abandon its normal activities and enter a coping state until the perturbation ends

4

What is allostasis?

The process of maintaining stability- refers to mechanisms maintaining homeostasis

5

What does allostatic load refer to?

The increased workload needed to maintain stability in response to perturbation

Measured by overall energy expenditure

6

What happens if allostatic overload is reached?

The emergency life history stage is triggered

7

What is predictive homeostasis?

Values associated with predictable day to day and seasonal activities- the normal range when there is no particular threat

8

What is reactive homeostasis?

The values encountered in response to unpredictable changes in the environment- when the animal reacts to a threat

9

What is homeostatic failure/homeostatic overload?

When the animal fails to react to the threat or can’t deal with the stress

10

What are the two main hormones secreted by the adrenal gland during a stress response?

Adrenaline and glucocorticoid steroids

11

What does the activation of the HPA axis do?

Causes the release of glucocorticoid steroids from the adrenal cortex

12

What is the name of the glucocorticoid secreted in rodents, birds, lizards and amphibians?

Corticosterone

13

What is the name of the glucocorticoid secreted in primates, large mammals, carnivores and fish?

Cortisol

14

What was found in ursin et al’s study on stress on military recruits?

Parachute jumps: testosterone was low immediately before and after the first jump- indicating a stress effect on the reproductive system

15

What was found in the study on the burrow system in rats?

Dominant males had lower corticosterone and higher testosterone levels

Dominant animals appear to have higher levels of 12-beta-HSD which inactivates glucocorticoid

16

What is different about dominant individuals in African wild dogs and dwarf mongooses?

Cortisol levels were higher in dominant individuals because they were involved in more aggressive encounters

17

What did Levine et al hypothesise about stress and early experience?

Early stressful experiences influence stress responsiveness later in life