Flashcards in Intro to Dev (2) Deck (32):
What are 2 problems of research with infants?
Short attention span
Main method of observing neural activity in infants?
Main method of observing behavior in infants?
Preferential looking method
What is EEG?
time sensitive measure of changes in activity of cortical areas.
What does an EEG measure?
Event Related Potentials
What are the 2 types of MRI?
Structural and Functional
What does the preference method involve?
1. present infant with 2 stimuli
2. measure the time infant looks at each
In preferential looking what does a longer looking time indicate?
In preferential looking what does discrimination mean?
can detect difference between the two stimuli
In preferential looking what does preference mean?
one stimulus is more interesting than the other
What is the preferential looking method measuring?
infants’ perceptual abilities
Strengths of Preference Method?
Simple, easy, versatile
Response bias can be resolved by counterbalancing
Weaknesses of the Preference Method?
Lack of explanation behind phenomena
Subjective interpretation of what infant is looking at.
What happens in normal MRI?
strong electromagnetic fields and radio waves are applied to different areas of the brain to produce detailed images of brain structures
What happens in fMRI?
measures the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal and how it changes in response to hemodynamic response function (HRF)
Why does fMRI scans measure BOLD signals?
oxygenated blood will cause a lower magnetic field disturbance, as a result active brain regions have higher signals
In MRI scans what are the steps in subtraction logic?
1. baseline task is measured
2. first active task is conducted, manipulate one factor of the baseline task
3. second active task is conducted, manipulate a factor in relation to the first active task
In subtraction logic how do you find whether a specific area acts in a task?
you can subtract readings of A from B or B from A
In subtraction logic how do you find whether both areas acts in a task?
you can subtract the reading of the baseline task from the reading you get from A/B
What does an EEG read?
electrical signals that the neurons make
What does an EEG use to measure electrical signals?
electrodes on the scalp
What do the results of an EEG represent?
the summed activity of millions of underlying neurons
What is a brain oscillation?
repetitive neural activity
What is the mirror neuron hypothesis?
when you observe another person doing something, the same brain areas will be active in you as in the other person doing the action.
What is the Non Nutritive sucking method used to measure?
whether infants can perceive depth or not
What is the Non Nutritive sucking method looking to measure?
Whether a pacifier is sucked only when seeing a pleasant stimuli or not
What is told if an infant only sucks in the presence of a target object in a Non Nutritive Sucking task?
Then you can conclude that the baby is capable of perceiving depth.
What is the preferential looking method based upon?
babies prefer to look at novel rather than familiar objects
3 ways in which data can be gathered in the preferential looking method?
1. Observers watching discreetly at what baby is looking at.
2. Film baby and then have observers identify what they looked at.
3. Recording eye movements using eye tracker.
What is the Yes Bias?
answer all questions that require an answer of either “yes” or “no” with yes