Intro to Dev (2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Dev (2) Deck (32):
1

What are 2 problems of research with infants?

Motor limitations
Short attention span

2

Main method of observing neural activity in infants?

EEG/ERP

3

Main method of observing behavior in infants?

Preferential looking method

4

What is EEG?

time sensitive measure of changes in activity of cortical areas.

5

What does an EEG measure?

Event Related Potentials

6

What are the 2 types of MRI?

Structural and Functional

7

What does the preference method involve?

1. present infant with 2 stimuli
2. measure the time infant looks at each

8

In preferential looking what does a longer looking time indicate?

Discrimination
Preference

9

In preferential looking what does discrimination mean?

can detect difference between the two stimuli

10

In preferential looking what does preference mean?

one stimulus is more interesting than the other

11

What is the preferential looking method measuring?

infants’ perceptual abilities

12

Strengths of Preference Method?

Simple, easy, versatile
Response bias can be resolved by counterbalancing

13

Weaknesses of the Preference Method?

Lack of explanation behind phenomena
Subjective interpretation of what infant is looking at.

14

What happens in normal MRI?

strong electromagnetic fields and radio waves are applied to different areas of the brain to produce detailed images of brain structures

15

What happens in fMRI?

measures the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal and how it changes in response to hemodynamic response function (HRF)

16

Why does fMRI scans measure BOLD signals?

oxygenated blood will cause a lower magnetic field disturbance, as a result active brain regions have higher signals

17

In MRI scans what are the steps in subtraction logic?

1. baseline task is measured
2. first active task is conducted, manipulate one factor of the baseline task
3. second active task is conducted, manipulate a factor in relation to the first active task

18

In subtraction logic how do you find whether a specific area acts in a task?

you can subtract readings of A from B or B from A

19

In subtraction logic how do you find whether both areas acts in a task?

you can subtract the reading of the baseline task from the reading you get from A/B

20

What does an EEG read?

electrical signals that the neurons make

21

What does an EEG use to measure electrical signals?

electrodes on the scalp

22

What do the results of an EEG represent?

the summed activity of millions of underlying neurons

23

What is a brain oscillation?

repetitive neural activity

24

What is the mirror neuron hypothesis?

when you observe another person doing something, the same brain areas will be active in you as in the other person doing the action.

25

What is the Non Nutritive sucking method used to measure?

whether infants can perceive depth or not

26

What is the Non Nutritive sucking method looking to measure?

Whether a pacifier is sucked only when seeing a pleasant stimuli or not

27

What is told if an infant only sucks in the presence of a target object in a Non Nutritive Sucking task?

Then you can conclude that the baby is capable of perceiving depth.

28

What is the preferential looking method based upon?

babies prefer to look at novel rather than familiar objects

29

3 ways in which data can be gathered in the preferential looking method?

1. Observers watching discreetly at what baby is looking at.
2. Film baby and then have observers identify what they looked at.
3. Recording eye movements using eye tracker.

30

Infants bias?

yes bias
performative bias

31

What is the Yes Bias?

answer all questions that require an answer of either “yes” or “no” with yes

32

What is the performative bias?

tendency to respond to a question with an action instead of replying verbally