Flashcards in Intro to Dev (8) Deck (25):
When can early social deprivation be studied?
When it occurs naturally
What is the maternal deprivation hypothesis?
During the critical period if a child is separated from its primary caregiver, the primary attachment is not formed.
What is the critical period?
time period when an organism is especially responsive to and learns from a specific type of stimulation
What is Bowlby's view on how long the critical period lasts?
first 3 years of life
What is Bowlby's view on what happens during the critical period?
development of social and emotional responsiveness
What is attachment?
close, emotional bond
What did Bowlby find out about delinquents with a history of maternal deprivation?
Maternal deprivation leads to: Superficial relationships, Little emotional response or concern.
What are the 2 other explanations for delinquency and separation?
1. circumstances surrounding the separation
2. due to maltreatment
What did Follan and Minnis (2010) find when comparing Bowlby's sample to children with reactive attachment disorder?
Maltreatment rather than separation explains subsequent delinquency
What did Harlow and Harlow (1962) find when young monkeys were raised in isolation?
When returned to other monkey showed social maladjustment
What is an effect on the brain if an attachment isn't formed in the critical period?
Reduced brain activity found in institutionalized Romanian orphans
What is the internal working model?
more positive early attachment experiences are linked to more positive developmental outcomes
What are the 2 positives that have come about since the maternal deprivation hypothesis was formed?
1. Improved childcare provision
2. Greater awareness of child's emotional needs
What are the 2 negatives that have come about since the maternal deprivation hypothesis was formed?
1. Day care controversy
2. Stigma around maternal employment
What is authoritarian parenting?
exerts power and coercion through the authority of status
Children under an authoritarian parent is?
unlikely to show much independence
What is permissive parenting?
leaves their child to take care of themselves, rarely gives direction
Children under a permissive parent is?
likely to have low self-control
What is democratic parenting?
communicate principles that underlie appropriate behaviour
What does the term 'mind-minded' refer to?
attuned their child on a psychological level and not just physical needs
A child with a secure attachment will?
1. Be distressed when attachment figure leaves
2. Quickly comforted when attachment figure returns
A child with an avoidant attachment will?
1. Not be distressed when the attachment figure leaves
2. Avoid the attachment figure when they return.
A child with a resistant attachment will?
1. Be overly upset when the attachment figure leaves.
2. Will seek and reject comfort when the attachment figure returns.
A child with a disoriented attachment will?
1. approaching the mother for comfort, but wear an anxious expression
2. may seem calm for a while but then suddenly become severely distressed