Introduction and Dietary Guidelines Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction and Dietary Guidelines Deck (25):
1

macronutrients
-use
-types
-quantity

-energy
-needed in alrge amounts
-fat, protein, carbs, alcohol

2

micronutrients
-uses
-quantity
-types

-cofactors and hormones
-needed in small amounts
-vitamins and minerals

3

what are essential nutrients

-things that can not be synthesized in large enough amounts to sustain health
-must be eaten

4

conditional essential nutrients

-typically not needed when in a healthy state but become essential in situations imposed by illness, physiologic stress, or deficiency
-carnitine with dialysis

5

diet record
-what
-span
-benefit
-use

-written record of individuals diet
-over 3 to 7 days (including weekend and weekdays)
-benefit is that they can record portion size
-used for clinical monitoring and research

6

24 recalls
-what
-challenge
-benefit
-use

-individual recalls what he/she ate in last 24 hours
-focus on portion size may be more difficult
-gives a sense of overall dietary patterns
-clinical monitoring and research

7

food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)
-what
-span
-benefit
-use

-frequency at which the individuals consume a specific food
-over 6 to 12 months
-helps gauge types of food and food patterns
-research

8

food supply and disappearance
-what
-use

-measures amount of raw materials that are consumed by the nation
-research and government/industry

9

NHANES

-performs physical exam, clinical assessment, and attain blood samples or other lab tests in person
-used for info about diet, typicallu utilize 24 hour recalls or perform FFQ's

10

BFRSS

conducted via telephone (this is a distinction from the NHANES)
-mainly assesses issues related to chronic disease and injury

11

US systems of dietary guidance for nutrients and dietary patterns

-nutrients: dietary reference intakes (DRI)
-dietary patterns: dietary guidelines for americans (DGA)

12

DRI

-dietary reference intake
-recommendations for intake of specific nutrients to promotes growth, maintain health or prevent disease
-values are developed for different sex and age groups

13

EAR

-average daily nutrient intake that meets 50% of populations needs

14

RDA

-2 SD's from EAR, adequate level for 98% of pop
-this is the most accurate

15

AI

-like RDa but without confirmation (observed/experimental data, but not enough evidence)
-once there is enough data, this becomes the RDA

16

UL

-highest daily intake below which most healthy people will see no adverse effects (greater than this there is toxicity)

17

AMDR

-% diet for each macronutrient (kCals) to provide essential nutrients and prevent chronic illness

18

DGA

-dietary guidelines for americans
-provides advise about good dietary habits to those who are 2 years or older
-basis for federal food and nutrition education programs
-looks at overall energy balance
-advises on what people should generally be eating instead of giving specific nutrient intake values
-examples are My plate and food pyramid

19

daily values (DV)

-standard nutrient intake values developed by FDA
-used as a reference for expressing nutrient content on nutrient labels

20

RDI

-reference daily intakes
-nutrient intake standards set by FDA based on the 1968 RDA's
-may differ from current RDA

21

daily reference values (DRV)

-nutrient intake standards established for protein, carbs, fat, and other nutrients
-lacking an RDA at that time

22

what are the exceptions to supplements not known to prevent human disease

-VB12 in people over 50
-follic acid in women of childbearing age or who are pregnant/ may become pregnant
-VitD in older adults/people with dark skin/limited exposure to sunlight

23

potential benefits of dietary supplements

-increased nutrient bioavailability as comopared to nutrients from food
-reversal or prevention of deficiencies
-crystalline VitB12 in setting of reduced gastric acid
-improved bioavailability

24

potential risks of supplements

-toxicity
-side effects
-impurities
-potentially decreased bioavailability
-drug nutrient interaction
-nutrient nutrient interaction
-false dietary security, could promote unhealthy eating

25

DSHEA labeling and safety

-labeling: describe the nutritive value of a product, distinguish from food, claims (health and structure)
-safety: the burden of proof is on the FDA to establish that a product presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury prior to restricting use ; surrent good manufacturing practices