Renal Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal Disease Deck (19):
1

role of the kidney

-regulation of fluids and electrolytes
-clearance of nitrogenous waste
-maintenance of acid base balance
-production of hormones

2

CKD disease has how many stages that are marked by reduction of what

-5
-GFR

3

what happens in the last stage of CKD and how is it treated

-renal failure
-renal replacement therapy

4

RRT includes what

-hemodialysis
-peritoneal dialysis
-continuous RRT

5

almost half of all renal failure is caused by

-diabetes mellitus

6

goals of nutritional intervention in kidney disease

-preservation of renal function
-assist incontrol of uremic symptoms
-nutrtional adequacy and lean body mass

7

causes of malnutrtion in renal patients

-unpalatable diets
-delayed gastric emptying
-inflammation and infection
-multiple meds
-metabolic acidosis
-social factors: loneliness, depression, poverty

8

a technique to slow GFR decline and maintain nutritional status

-a protein controlled diet of 0.6-0.8 grams per kiogram is recommended for CKD patients not on dialysis

9

how do we address sodium and fluid dysregulation

-restrict diet to 1-3 grams of sodium daily
-possible fluid restriction

10

managements of hyophosphatemia

-restricted phospohorus diet and dietary phosphorus binders

11

what manifests into secondary hyperthyroidism in renal patients and why

-vitamin D deficiency
-liver can not hydroxylate vitamin D into its active form so it does not cause Ca absorption which would inhibit PTH release
-however, without its inhibition, PTH is released and causes an increase in Ca resorption from bone

12

providing supplemental active vitamin D prevents

-secondary hyperparathyroidism
-excess bone resorption

13

what hormone can the kidney not produce during failure

-EPO
-causes anemia

14

what can lead to protein breakdown in patients with kidney failure

-metabolic acidosis
-this is due to loss of normal acid secretion
-treated with the administration of bicarbinate to maintain balance

15

what is the most common therapy for renal failure

-dialysis

16

hemodialysis can have what nutritional effects?

-appetite changes
-nausea
-vomiting
-fatigue
-constipation
-protein loss

17

what nutritional factors are recommended in patients on hemodialysis?

-additional protein consumption (at least 1.2g/kg)
-fiber intake in the range of 25-30 g/day
-reduced sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and fluid

18

what can peritoneal dialysis provide
-what is recommended for these patients
-what are some common side effects/ problems

-a significant glucose load via the dialysate
-increased satiety effect from the dialysate
-higher risk for peritonitis

19

nutrtional assessment of renal patients
-biochemical measures

-monitoring dietary intake
-dry weight trends
-skinfold and muscle circumference
-biochemical measure such as: albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatine, potassium, and phosphorus