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Flashcards in Energy Intake Deck (23):
1

respiratory quotient
-how can it be used
-when can this come into play in disease

-vCO2/vO2
-each macronutrient is associated with a different value
-used as an indicator of the relative proportion of macronutrient being oxidized
-comes into play when a disease state effects the proportion of O2 to CO2 such as pulmonary diseases that result in CO2 retention

2

three components of total energy expenditure (TEE)

-basal energy expenditure (BEE), accounts for about 2/3 of TEE
-thermic effect of feeding (TEF), usually about 10-15%
-expenditure of physical activity (EEPA), can be very variable due to differences in activity level and lifestyle (high exercise will decrease the contributions of BEE and TEF to TEE)

3

factors that contribute to BEE

-FFM (the most metabolically active tissues), most important determinant
-thyroid hormone, primary hormonal determination
-catecholamines and sympathetic
-aging, loss of muscle mass
-gender, differences in body comp after puberty
-uncoupling proteins
-illness, increased BEE
-medications and increase or decrease

4

TEF
-proportional to
-macronutrient differences
-is this an important contributor to TEE or body weight?

-proportional to food intake
-protein 20-30% of its energy
-carbs 5-10% of its energy
-fat 5% of its energy
-not an importatn contributor to TEE or body weight

5

EEPA
-components

-exercise
-non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): energy spent on the activities of daily living, posture, fidgeting, and other activities such as chewing

6

how is BEE measured

-indirect calorimetry, which is the measurement of vCO2 and vO2

7

short term homeostatic signals
- what do they regulate

-initiation of eating
-how much is eaten during a session
-duration between sessions

8

types of short term signals

-availability of glucose or free fatty acids in the brain
-gastric distention
-hunger and satieation hormones

9

long term homeostatic signals

-leptin and insulin
-directly related to fat storesor insulin resistance due to fat stores

10

non homeostatic signals

-result in reward an reinforcement of intake
-

11

reinforcement of food intake

-this occurs when post ingestive factors are paired with sensory properties
-this results in the pleasure of eating food

12

food factors that influence intake

-dietary fiber
-macronutrient composition
-glycemic index and glycemic load
-energy density
-liquid or solid
-availability
-variety
-palatability

13

dietary fiber

-act to retain water in the stomach
-slow gastric emptying due to gel formation
-slow absorption and digestion in the small intestine
-triggers hormones such as GLP1
-fecal excretion of energy

14

macronutrient composition most likely to effect intake

-high protein low carb

15

glycemic index and glycemic load

-blood glucose response to food may influence later intake by its effects on insulin and therefore glucose

16

large and rapid increases in sinsulin

-proposed to result in overshoot of blood glucose and stimulate hunger

17

energy density

-the amount of energy per unit weight of food may underly some of the effects of high fat diets to promote excess food intake

18

availability of food

-can lead to a greater intake if the food is available in the immediate environment
-portion size also falls under this

19

variety

-increasing variety of a type of food or increasing more types of food leads to greater intake

20

ghrelin

-the only known circulating hunger hormone

21

CCK

-stimulated by the duodenum in response to ingestion of protein and fat and leads to satiation via the CNS

22

glucagon like peptide

-GLP1
-stimulated by the presence of macronutrients in the small intestine and leads to delayed gastric emptying and satiety via the CNS

23

leptin
-reflects what
-production
-fucntion
-action
-obese people
-mutations

-reflective of the bodies fat stores
-protein that is produced in fat cells in proportion to stored fad and secreted into circulation
-crosses blood brain barrier and acts on the hypothalamus to decrease food intake
-concentration in obese people is proportional to their body fat but this impairs the function of the hormone (resistant)
-mutations in the hormone itself are rare but there are mutations found in the melanocortinin receptor responsible for its signaling
-injection in deficient individuals fixes obesity
-injections have a very modest effect in people who are not deficient