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Flashcards in Fat soluble Viatmins SG Deck (31):
1

preformed vitamin A appears where

-retinyl esters or retinol
-found in animal foods such as liver, fish, dairy,
-also in fortified foods such as cerials and reduced fat milk

2

carotenoids are found in

-fruits
-veggies
-fats
-oils
-sweets
-fortified foods such as cerials and supps

3

what regulates the cleavage of the three provitamin A carotenoids
-wehre?

-vitamin A stores regulate the cleavage
-happens in the enterocyte

4

functions of vitamin A metabolites

-vision
-cell division and differentiation
-reproduction
-immunity
-bone growth

5

vit A def's occur with

-poor diet
-malabsorptive disorders
-parasite infestation

6

signs of a Vitamin A def

-impaired night vision and epithelial scarring of the eyes leading to blindness
-impaired growth and development
-impaired immunity and increased risk of infections

7

vitamin A tox
-when does it occur?

-excess ingestion of preformed vitamin A
-impaired excretion of vitamin metabolites
-excess intake is almost always due to supplements
-excretion may be impaired in chronic kidney disease, this causes a predisposition of vitamin A def

8

vitamin A tox is usually through chronic overload and this manifests by

-headache, diziness, loss of muscle coordination and eventual coma
-liver damage and eventual cirrhosis
-alopecia
-teratogenicity
-osteoperosis

9

provitamin A carotenoids and tox

-they do not result in tox becasue cleavage to vitamin A is regulated
-increaed provitamin results in excess oraange or yellow pigmentation of skin

10

supplementation with beta carotene

-not recommended due to supp trials where some populations such as smokers experienced greater rates of cancer

11

fancy name for viatmin D

-cholecalciferol

12

vitamin D synthesis

-in the skin in response to sun light

13

ergocalciferol

-not endogenously synthesized but is consumed from some plant food sources as well as in supps and fortified foods

14

hydroxylation of vitamin D

-occurs in the liver and then in the kidney to produce the active form 25-(OH)2

15

vitamin D functions to

-increase calcium and phosphate absorption in the small intestine
-increase calcium resorption and increase phosphate excretion by the kidney
-increase calcium resorption as well as deposition in bone

16

risks for vitamin D deficiency include

-infants who are exclusively breast fed
-poor diet
-inadequate sun exposure
-darker pigmentation of skin
-lactose intolerance, as milk products may be an important source for some individuals
-fat metabolism
-liver disease
-kidney disease

17

vitamin D deficiency syndromes

-children: rickets is manifested byimparied bone mineralization and bowing of the legs
-adults: osteomalacia is manifested by bone pain and tenderness
-acceleration of osteoporosis and fracture risk
-myopathy and weakness

18

when does vitamin D tox occur

-medications or dietary supplememnts containing vitamin D
-skin synthesis is suppressed with vitamin D sufficiency
-manifests by hypercalciemia sequale

19

vitamin D upper limit is based on

-risk of hypercalcemia and its complications of hypercalciuria nephrolithiasis and clacification of vascular and soft tissue

20

vitamin e functions as an

-antioxidant

21

deficiency can occur with

-poor intake
-GI disesae
-malabsorption
-congenital diseases which prevent vitamin E export from the liver (disorders of lipid metabolism where vitamin E can not be carried by lipoproteins or due to genetic defects in alpha-tocopherol transfer proteins)

22

def in vitamin E most commonly results in

-peripheral neuropathy
-can also result in: immune defects, optic neuropathy, and hemolytic anemia

23

toxicity is due to

-use of dietary supps

24

tox of vitamin E results in

-increased risk of hemorrhage, and this serves as the rationale for the upper limit
-patients taking vitamin E supplements should stop then before surgery

25

all cause mortality limit of vitamin E

-400IU per day
-routine supp at or above this limit is not recommended

26

wehre is vitamin K found

-green leafy plants
-soy beans
-oils
-some dairy
-some animal foods
-some fermented foods
-fortified foods such as breakfast cereals
-fast food rich in plant oils

27

role of vitamin K

-cofactor for the gama-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues to from Gla
-this carboxylation is necessary for functionality by allowing calcium binding of the vitmain K dependent blood coagulation factors

28

purpose of the vitamin K cycle

-once it is used in gama carboxylation, it is in the form of an epoxide that needs to be regenerated by the vitamin K cycle

29

action of warfarin

-blocks the regeneration of vitamin K by inhibiting the vitamin K cycle

30

risk for vitamin K deficiency occurs with

-malabsorptive disorders
-liver disease, which can influence absorption and storage
-poor diet and alcoholism
-birth, babies are born vitamin K deficient

31

deficiency in vitamin K results in risk for

-abnormal bleeding
-hemorrhagic disease in newborns who are not supplemented with vitmain K
-embryopathy, or congenital syndromes in children born to women who take warfarin during pregnancy or more rapidly in children that are born to women with vitamin K def