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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (18):

four types of macros



utility of macronutrients

-required and ingested in relatively large amounts (usually grams)


role of micronutrients

-components of hormones
-maintenance of electrochemical gradients
-required or ingested in small amounts


classes of micronutrients

-minerals: trace elements are a subset of minerals consumed in very small amounts


essential nutrients

-humans can not synthesize
-must be ingested
-requirements established


conditionally essential nutrients

-alteration in requirements imposed by illness or treatment
-results in need for intake that is otheriwse not necessary in health
-glutamine in critical illness
-carnitine in hemodialysis
-choline with inadequate intake of methionine and folate


food frequency questionaires

-assess frequency that certain foods are consumed
-usually over 6 to 12 months
-used mostly for research


food supply and disappearance

-amount of raw materials or food that are produced or disappear
-used for research and by government


national health and nutrition examination survey
-who, how, what

-targets US non-institutionalized persons across all ages
-done in person
-physical examination and other clinical assessments
-blood samples and other lab tests
-diet with 24 hour recall


behavioral risk factor surveillance system
-who, how, what?

-US non institutionalized persons across all ages
-by telephone
-some validation to insure that self reported data are accurate compared to the same data collected directly
-health risk behaviors
-clinical preventitive practices
-health care access and use primarily related to chronic illnes and injury
-survey data are reported for each state
-this may be less reliable than than NHANES because it is not done in person


who tells us what to eat?
-diet and dietary patterns

Nutrients: dietary reference intakes (DRI), dietary guidelines for americans (DGA), professional societies

Diet and dietary patterns: DGA, nutrients fact panel on food packages, professional societies


dietary reference intakes

-these are issued by the insitute of medicine and the naitonal academy of science and provides recommendations for all nutrient intake


estimated average requirement (EAR)

-the average daily nutrient intake level that is estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a particular stage and gender group


recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

-the average daily nutrient intake level that is sufficient to met the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
-this is a statisctical calculation from EAR


adequate intake (AI)

the recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determines approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate; used whe an RDA cannot be determined


tolerable upper intake level: UL

-the highest average daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population
-as intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects increases


acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges

-the range of intake for a particular energy source expressed as a percentage of total energy, that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essentialnutrients


major focues of the dietary guidelines of america

-total diest: combining nutrients and consuming food
-energy balance and weight management
-nutrient adequacy
-fatty acids and cholesterol
-sodium, potassium and water
-food safety and technology