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Flashcards in Pediatrics Deck (44):
1

what increases the likelihood of a preterm or LBW infant?

-maternal underweight status and or poor maternal weight gain

2

what does maternal overweight or obese status lead to?

increased risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and difficult deliveries

3

what are maternal weight gain recommendations based on?

pre pregnancy BMI with underweight women encouraged to gain more and vice versa
-recommended gain during the first trimester is significantly less than the second and third

4

when is weight gain the most important during pregnancy

-third trimester
-energy expenditures are increased

5

what can pregnancy be adversely effected by in the diet

-high dose vitamin A
-alcohol
-excessive caffeine

6

what can prenatal nutrition effect

-fetal programming which affects the development of chronic diseases later in life
-low birth weight is associated with obesity later in life

7

micronutrient requirements during pregnancy

-some increase (iron and zinc)
-some don't change (vitamin D and calcium)
-the absorption of calcium, iron, and zinc improves during pregnancy

8

how do vegans and vegetarians meet requirements during pregnancy

-supplementation

9

which foods should be avoided during pregnancy

-high listeria risk
-high mercury

10

needs during lactation

-higher energy and protein

11

micronutrient needs during lactation

-same as in pregnancy except there is a decrease in the need for iron and folate
-however it is recommended that mothers still take iron supplements in order to replete their iron stores

12

what are the benefits of breast feeding

-physical, emotional, convenience, and financial benefits for the mother
-nutritional and health benefits for the infant

13

how long should breast feeding happen

-for the first 6 months but recommended for 12

14

maternal nutrition and lactation

-if nutrition is inadequate than milk production could be decreased and in poor quality

15

colostrum

-the first fluid expressed from breast milk
-thick and high in proteins and immunoglobulins

16

compositional changes of breast milk

-foremilk (early) contains more lactose
-hindmilk (late) contains more fat
-low in vitamin D and iron, although the iron in breast milk is highly bioavailable

17

contrindication to breast feeding

-HIV infection
-galactosemia
-substance abuse

18

what is the best marker of nutritional status in children

-growth

19

what is the first thing to be affected by malnutrtion

-weight

20

how fast should birthweight double

4 to 6 months of age

21

what is a good longterm indicator

-height because it is effected by long term malnutrtion

22

what is the least sensitive measurement of nutritional status

-head circumference
-it is the last to be affected by malnutrition

23

underweight

-low weight for age
-recent acute illness or is genetic

24

wasting

-low weight for the height
-more severe recent acute illness
-can increase mortality

25

stunting

-low height for the age
-chronic malnutrtion or genetic

26

what is the fastest growth stage in the life cycle

infancy

27

what is the major energy source for infancy

-fat

28

what vitamin sup is recommended for breast fed infants

-vitamin D

29

when are infants ready for solid food

4 to 6 months of age
-however breast milk should remain the primary source of nutrients for the first year of life

30

what is recommended for a first solid food

iron supplemented solid since iron stores are depleted after 4 to 6 months

31

when should cows milk be introduced

-after the first year of life

32

what should be avoided in infancy

honey and corn syrup

33

failure to thrive (FTT)

-infants who fail to gain weight or they lose weight
-can be due to medical organic or non organic reasons
-often due to inadequate intake, absorption, or excessive metabolic demands

34

how do you address and assess FTT

study the meal times or feedings, including caretaker-child interactions

35

when does appetite decrease

-after one year of life

36

appetite and intake variability

-varies over the short term but not so much over the long term

37

common childhood nutrition related concerns

-iron deficiency
-dental caries
-obesity

38

overweight child

greater than 85%ile of BMI for age

39

obese child

greater than 95%ile BMI for age

40

severely obese child

greater than 99%ile BMI for age

41

ways to curb childhood obesity

-encourage healthy diet and require a minimum of 60 mins physical activity per day
-

42

adolescent growth spurt

-both boys and girls have an increased energy and nutrient requirement to support growth and maturation
-this group is heavily influenced by peers

43

where are disorders most common

-in the adolescent female population

44

female athlete triad

-disordered eating
-amenorrhea
-osteoperosis