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who is he and where was he born?

swiss psychologist noted primarily for his theories about child development
born in Switzerland in 1896 and died in 1980


When and what did he develop?

- 1959, developed theory of process of intellectual development (cognitive), human intelligence and moral development
- produced detailed awareness on the cognitive process of humans, focus on understanding the mind.


Brief overview of his theory:

- believed intellectual development occurred during 4 major stages of growing up process during childhood/adolescence.
- ways in which indivi's ability to know and perceive things differ from each stage
- suggests that concepts/ideas formed at particular age are partly due to earlier experiences and process of growing up.


What is the most relevant stage to study adolescence and beyond into adulthood?

stage 4: operational stage


What methods did he use to create this theory?

- interview: talk with and test limits of children's ideas of how the world works
- observations according to experiments


What is stage 1 called and years?

sensori-motor phase (birth - 1.5 years)


what is stage 1 concerned with?

- abilities necessary to construct ad reconstruct objects, particularly to the ability to see and understand movement.
- baby starts to move from REFLEX (Crying, sucking) to REFLECTIVE behaviour, behaviour which indicates some thought behind it.


What is the end result of stage 1?

- by about 1.5 years, baby develop solutions to day-to-day problems, e.g. hunger, thirst, loneliness and is able to act on solution.
- know difference between sucking thumb to nipple, and apply knowledge according to own needs


Example of stage 1 and central concept?

- central concept: 'conservation of the object' -> if infant no longer see something, cut of existence, helps explain pleasure of 'peek-a-boos'.
- recontruction of hidden obhects accomplished with aid of elementary form of reasoning, e.g. coin in hand, hide, coin under cover, child notice at 18 months where it is, recontructing path as 1. coin in hand, 2. hand under cover, 3. coin not in hand, 4. must be under cover


What is stage 2 called?

preoperational period 18month-7yrs


what is stage 2 concerned with?

- child develops language and number skills (thinking power develops)
- by age 4, average child learns 3 000 words, arranged to convey meaning. (multilingual learns twice as much)
- beginning of period, child tends to identify words and symbols with objects they are intended to represent and clearly tell difference. (symbolic play = 2 sticks at right angles = aeroplane give hours of pleasure)


Stage 2 before and early years of school:

- before school mastered basics of communicating using symbols, namely words
- early years work done on developing other sets of symbols, numbers.


example of stage 2:

- no reversibility in thought in children, unable in thought to return to starting point.
e.g. liquid poured from one glass to another of diff shape, child of 4-7 believe amt of liquid changed.
- cannot reverse process in thought and understand the unchanging quantity (conversation) of liquid.


What is the 3rd stage?

concrete operational period (7-12 years)


what happens in concrete operational period?

persons starts to develop logical thinking, rather than reliance purely on perception.


What is example of 3rd stage?

- performed experiment to show that thinking power of 2-7 were dominated by perception, than logic.
EXPERIMENT: 2 rows of coin placed on table. One row had 9 coins placed close together, other had 8 coins spread apart. When asked which had most coins, those under 7 pointed to row of 8 but those over 7 took time to count coins and point to row of 9 coins.
- Piaget explained this as ability to think logically.

EXPERIMENT 2: actions carried out in thought and are reversible.
e.g. asked to collect same amt of sticks as on table.
young one counted by picking up stick or placing stick under each one on table.
older one counted in head to collect stick


What is the 4th stage?

formal operational period (12-15yrs)


what do you develop in the formal operational period?

-ability to speculate and think in abstract terms without concrete materials
-can reason with hypothesis
-ability to think beyond present (speculate on future) and ask "what if" type Qs. = main difference in adolescence and child

- fully developed thinking powers


What does the 4th stage mean?

- new intellectual abilities allow adolescent to think about their ideas, to construct ideals and reason realistically about future.
- cognitive development finished at this stage
- can improve thinking powers over time but no developmental period after this.
- in terms of cognitive development, they are adults. However, not accepted as such as society judges adulthood on different values


What are the relevance to Jean Piaget's theory to today?

- his theories of intellectual development have gained wide acceptance as research studies confirm his findings
- now how informed view of development of intelligence during childhood->adolescence
- important part of professional courses for ppl dealing with children/adolescents e.g. teacher, social workers


List the 4 stages in order:

1. sensori-motor phase 0-18 months
2. preoperational period 18 months - 7yrs
3. concrete operations period 7-12 yrs
4. formal operations period 12-15 yrs