Flashcards in Joint Diseases Handorff Deck (26)
Osteoarthritis most commonly affects which joints
Back, knee, hand, hip...joints that bear a lot of stress
Symptoms of osteoarthritis
painful joints, pain after joint has been used, discomfort during significant weather changes, swelling in a joint, stiffness in a joint, bony lumps in the joint
What is the bony growth in joints that appears during osteoarthritis
This is the body's attempt to repair the joint
Risk factors of Osteoarthritis
Being a woman, over 45, previous injury, obesity, diseases that cause malformation of bone structure
Rheumatoid Arthritis is a disease stemming from a disorder of what?
The immune system
Rheumatoid arthritis is most common in who>
Women. Between the ages of 20 and 50
RA tends to affect which joints
small joints of the hands and feet, loss of range of motion, loss of muscular strength in the muscles attached to the affected joints
-low grade fever
- fatigue which can be severe during flare ups
- stiffness or aching
Too many notecards....probably
What is the cause of RA
Unknown really. CD4 cells aggregate and secrete cytokines to attract B cells and macrophages. These B cells and macrophages form the inflammatory response
Many patients have IgM antibodies to the Fc receptors on IgG. These immune complexes form extra-articular manifestations and can be measured as rheumatoid factor
20% of pts with rheumatoid arthritis get a
What does a rheumatoid nodule look like?
consists of an acellular center of eosinophillic material surrounded by palisaded histiocytes and other cells, maybe with a rim of granulation tissue
Where do Rheumatoid nodules occur?
-Aortic valve, pericardium, lung parenchyma
What the fuck is a pannus
Basically you get this acute and chronic synovitis during RA which leads to proliferation of vascular connective tissue in the synovium.
This later fills with Polys, T cells, and plasma cells
Pannus means a membrane of granulation tissue. It can proliferate over time and contribute to joint destruction. It erodes cartilage and bone.
Gouts main cause
high levels of uric acid
Joint may swell, become warm to the touch and red in appearance. Pt may develop a fever and a skin lump that is white and chalky in appearance.
Joint pain in gout often affects
Great toe, knee, and ankle
Rare that only one joint is affected
Higher risk for gout in
Men, postmenopausal women, alcohol drinkers
Urate chrystals form when the concentration of uric acid in the body reaches
7 mg/dl at normal body temperature. These chrystals form faster at lower temps that why they usually form in the toes and fingers (furthest from the heart, where the temp is lowest)
yellow= urate= parallel
calcium = yellow= perpendicular
calcium phosphate deposition
bacterial infection in joint
How do these organisms arrive?
Infectious arthritis usually infects what joints?
Giant cell tumor of Tendon sheath
Basically you look for a bunch of multinucleated giant cells and a background of histiocytes. DONT CONFUSE WITH TB