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Gross Anatomy > Kidneys > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidneys Deck (21):
1

Kidneys

excrete most metabolism waste
control water and electrolyte balance
maintain acid/base balance in blood
makes urine

2

Coverings of the Kidney

Fibrous Capsule
Perirenal Fat
Renal Fascia
Pararenal Fat

3

Renal Sinus

space within hilum

4

Nephron

basic functional unit
in renal medulla
renal corpuscle, proximal and distal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle,

5

Renal Corpuscle

glomerulus + Bowman capsule
allows water, waste, ions, small molecules to pass thru capillary wall but keeps cells and plasma in blood

6

Glomerulus

consists of spherical knot of capillaries which is fed by afferent arteriole and drained by efferent arteriole

7

Bowman Capsule

visceral layer- podocytes
parietal layer- squamous epithelium
Bowman Space

8

Podocytes

cover capillaries of glomerulus
have intraglomerular mesangial cells that aid in blood filtration

9

Glomerulus

blood flows thru its capillaries and plasma passes through the glomerular filtration barrier
filtrate collected in Bowman Space

10

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

drain filtrate from renal corpuscle into loop of Henle
lined w/ simple cuboidal epithelium w/ microvili
connects to renal corpuscle at urinary pole
help transport ions and reabsorb water, glucose, aa, protein, vitamins from filtrate

11

Descending Loop of Henle

permeable to water, chlorine, sodium ions
reabsorb water and salts

12

Ascending Loop of Henle

impermeable to water
pumps chlorine and sodium from tubes into medullary interstitium

13

Distal Convoluted Tubules

lined with cuboidal epithelal cells and no brush border
have macula densa that monitors ionic content and water volume
Remove Na+ and add K+
reabsorb bicarbonate ions and secrete ammonium to adjust pH

14

Collecting System

collecting tubules, collecting ducts, papillary ducts
ADH makes tubules highly water permeable

15

Ureters

lined with transitional epithelium
surrounded by smooth muscle and connective tissue
drain from renal pelvis and empty into bladder

16

Bladder

3 openings (2 ureters, 1 urethra)
mucosal, muscularis, adventitial layers
3 smooth muscle layers in muscularis

17

Suprarenal Gland Cortex

secretes hormones like mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids, sex hormones

18

Mineral Corticoids

control fluid and elctrolyte balance

19

Glucocorticoids

control metabolism of carbs, fats, proteins

20

Sex Hormones

help develop sex organs

21

Suprarenal Gland Medulla

secrete catecholamines- epinephrine and norepinephrine