Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (51):
1

3 parts of the neuron

cell body, dendrite, axon

2

Dendrites

transmit signals to the cell body

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Axon

sends signal from cell body to axon terminal to be sent to a new neuron

4

Synapse

sending signals from the terminal bouton across the synaptic cleft to the new neuron

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What supplies energy for a synapse?

Mitochondria on pre and postsynaptic neurons

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Golgi Preparation

Isolate individual neurons

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Nissl Preparation

Shows cell bodies of neurons

8

Myelin Preparation

Stains myelinated fibers but not cell bodies or dendrites

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H and E Preparation

Stains entire neuron

10

Central Nervous System

Brain and Spinal Cord

11

Peripheral Nervous System

nerves/ ganglia that are not a part of the brain or spinal cord (except CN2)

12

Clusters of neuron cell bodies
PNS vs CNS

PNS- Ganglia
CNS- nuclei

13

Glial Cells

support functions for neurons relating to nutrition, regulate extracellular environment (blood brain barrier, immune system), myelin insulation

14

Astrocytes

Support and repair neurons
Form Brain-blood barrier in CNS

15

Astrocyte End-feet

make glia limitans which coat the inner surface of pia mater

16

Microglia

Clean up cellular debris via phagocytosis

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Satellite

Form brain-blood barrier in CNS; similar to astrocytes

18

Ependymal

Form epithelial lining of CNS; make cerebrospinal fluid

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Oligodendrocytes

Myelinates axons of neurons in CNS

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Schwann Cells

Myelinates axons of neurons in PNS

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Dura Mater

Tough outermost lining that covers brain and spinal cord

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Arachnoid Mater

Fibrous membrane, between Dura and Pia mater

23

Pia Mater

Innermost layer, attached to brain and spinal cord

24

Forebrain

Anterior part; contains cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, hypothalamus
AKA proencephalon

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Hindbrain

Lowe part of brainstem; contains cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata
AKA rhombencephalon

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Telencephalon

Cerebral hemispheres

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Diencephalon

Epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, ventral thalamus, third ventricle

28

Mesencephalon

midbrain; tectum, tegmentum, cerebral aqueduct, cerebral peduncles

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Metencephalon

Pons and cerebellum

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Myelencephalon

Medulla Oblongata

31

Spinal Cord

Extends from Medulla to between 1st and 2nd Lumbar vertebrae, where it becomes a tendon

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Grey Matter

Contains cell bodies, dendrites, axon terminals- where synapses occur
Do not have extended axons
No myelin sheath

33

White Matter

Made of axons that connect gray matter
Myelinated

34

Node of Ranvier

Unmyelinated parts of axons that causes a signal to jump and speeds up the signal

35

Fascicle

Bundle of neurons surrounded by CT

36

Nerve

Bundle of fascicles surrounded by CT

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Epineurium

Dense, irregular CT that surrounds all peripheral nerves

38

Perineurium

CT that contains flattened fibroblasts that surround each fascicle
AKA blood-brain barrier

39

Endoneurium

loose CT within a fascicle that surrounds each axon

40

What type of fibers are carried by peripheral nerve fibers?

Motory, sensory, autonomic

41

Posterior Root of CNS

carries sensory signals from body back to CNS

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Anterior Root of CNS

carries motor signals from CNS to muscles and organs

43

List the Cranial Nerves in order

Olfactory; Optic; Occulomotor; Trochlear; Trigeminal; Abducens; Facial; Vestibulochochlear; Glossopharyngeal; Vagus; Accessory; Hypoglossal

44

Dermatome

Area of skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root

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Sympathetic System

Emotions; Fight or Flight

46

Parasympathetic System

Rest and Digest

47

Enteric Division of ANS

Network of plexuses in walls of gut, move bolus through gastrointestinal tract

48

Oculomotor Nerve

Synapse in ciliary ganglion
Innervate sphincter of pupil and ciliary muscle

49

Facial Nerve

Synapse in pterygopalatine ganglion; Innervates lacrimal and nasal glands
Synapse in submandibular ganglion; innervates submandibular and sublingual glands

50

Glossopharyngeal Nerve

Synapse in otic ganglion
Innervates parotid gland

51

Vagus Nerve

Synapse in mural or intramural ganglia of heart, lungs, lower esophagus, stomach, pancreas, gall bladder, SI, ascending and transverse colon