Flashcards in Lab Revision 1 Deck (29):
If you have a large bottle of chemicals which I plan to decant into a smaller container, name four potential details I should write on the label with regards to health & safety??
- What is it
- How dilute is it
- If its hazardous or not
- Any storage requirements
Name the clear plastic bottle that is used to collect urine and feaces samples??
Universal bottle has a white top
What are centrifuges used for??
Centrafuses spin at high speed they are used to
- Separate blood samples, plasma and serum
- Separate feacal or urine samples into solid and liquid phases
- Concentrate materials- worm egg count
What speed and duration of time do we spin a blood sample at using the centrifuge??
Spun for 5mins at 10,000 rotations per min (rpm)
What do we use a biochemistry analyser for??
To measure how much of a substance is in a patients blood -eg- Glucose
What is a Haematology analyser for?
To measure number and type of RBC, WBC within blood sample
On a microscope, what are the potential powers for use of an objective lens? I.e on some it is x4 ??
X10 x100 X 40
List the steps for using a Microscope??
1) Wear PPE if necessary
2) Remove dust cover and plug the microscope into an electrical socket
3) Lower the stage to its lowest point
4) Adjust the sub stage condenser to a few millimetres below the stage
5) Ensure the reheostat is turned down low before switching on the microscope
6) Turn on the microscope and increase the rheostat to a medium light ( if present)
7) Place microscope slide on the stage and use the clips to hold in place
8) Rotate the lowest objective lens and click into place (x4)
9) Without looking down the eyepieces, move the stage up until the microscope slide sits just underneath the objective lens, without touching it.
10) look thought eyepieces and move them so that you see one field of view
11) As you look through the eyepieces, move the stage slowly downwards using the course focus knob until the image on the microscope slide becomes clear, once the image is clear, you can use the fine focus to sharpen the image.
12) If you need to look at the image using the higher objective lens x10 or x40 you must take your eyes away from the eyepieces and move the objective lens into place making sure it dose not touch the microscope slide. You may then use the fine focus knob to sharpen the image again.
What type of sample do we use an objective lens of x10 to look at??
- Feaces examination
- Hair Examination
- Urine Examination
- WBC,RBC Counts
List as many types of sample taken by veterinary practices for further analysis/examination as you can??
- Fecal analysis
- Blood samples
- Skin and Tissues biopsies
- joint fluid
- CSF fluid
What is CSF??
Cerebral spinal fluid
Sub-arachnoid space runs the length of brain and spinal cord for protection
Which size of needle if finer of the two in terms of width, 25g or 18g ??
25g is finer
What is the term used to sample abdominal fluid??
Abdominocentesis Or Abdominal paracentesis
If taking a tissue sample what ratio of sample to fixing solution would you use??
10 parts of fixing fluid to 1 part of tissue by volume
What might cause 'lysis' or breakdown of cells in a blood sample ??
Sample may have been agitated, not spun down or using the wrong gage of needle
How would you spectate a blood sample into red blood cells, plasma and buffy coat? ( what is the name of the machine used??
What is the difference between plasma and serum ??
Plasma - has cutting factors
Serum dose not
List the procedure for sending a sample to a laboratory??
1) Wear PPE
2) Check that sample is preserved correctly, ie is there adequate formalin
3) Ensure the container is labelled with the animals- species, name, breed, sex,age, date, and time of sample
4) Ensure the container is airtight, moisture proof and robust
5) Ensure the total volume/mass of the sample in one package dose not exceed 50ml or 50 g
6) Wrap the container in absorbent cotton to absorb the total volume of fluid in the sample should the container leek or break
7) place in bio hazard bag
8) Ensure the laboratory paperwork/ form has been completed and place this in a plastic bag separate from sample
9) place all the items into the tertiary layer eg: prepaid padded bag supplied by the laboratory
10) Ensure the outer packaging contains the senders name and address
11) Ensure the outer packaging states the nature of the sample and any special instructions eg: handle with care, fragile, pathological specimen
12) Ensure the sample is sent by first class post or via a courier
Name two common venepuncture sites for collection in a dog??
Cephalic vein, Jugular vein, lateral saphenous
Name two types of anticoagulant??
Why might a blood sample be cloudy ??
Fat globules in serum or plasma
What might be the cause of cloudy blood??
-Animal has recently been fed
- Liver disease
What is the name of the clay sealant used to seal a microhaematocrit tube??
Name the stain compiled of three separate coloured solutions used to stain a blood smear??
Diff quick solution
What is PVC used to determine??
% of RBC in blood test for anaemia or dehydration
List 3 potential faults that might appear on a blood smear??
-Too thick too thin, hesitation lines
- Crenation-withering, shrivelling of blood cells
- streaks incorrect staining
What's the term used to describe RBC Production??
When looking at WBC's there are two types- what are the difference between 'agranulocytes' and ' granulocytes' and can you name those belonging to each category??
~ Granulocytes = granules in
~Agranulocytes =No granules in cytoplasm