Flashcards in Skin Hair And Feaces Deck (32):
Define the term Pustule?
Small puss filled Leison- thin walled and easily ruptured
Define the term Vesicle?
Small sac containing serious fluid ( blister)
Define the term Papule?
Small solid elevation
Define the term Epidermal collarette?
Dry scurvy skin external rim feature of a skin Leison?
Define the term Exudative?
Define the term Pruritic?
Itchy inflamed skin.
Define the term Lichenification?
Thick hardened skin.
Define the term Alopecia?
Define the term Ectoparasite ?
Define the term Mycosis?
Disease caused by a fungus
Specific procedures involved in examination of skin and hair include ??
- Skin scraping
- Cellotape impressions
- Collect plucked hairs
- coat brushing
- swabbing teks.
Samples collected will be subjected to a variety of laboratory techniques I.e
- microscopy- ectoparasites
- standing and microscope - yeasts
- Culture and sensitivity - pustules
- Hystology - Neoplasia.
Explain the technique for Coat Brushing?
- collect equipment comb brush coat head to tail take samples of any dirt
- Dampen dirt is it turns red its flea dirt
- need microscope + microscope slide tap coat brushings onto slide then cover with liquid paraffin then cover with cover slip, examine on low power
Explain the tape technique?
Part animals hair to expose skin press cellotape onto skin and the hair, need microscope slide attach cellotape onto slide and examine on low power.
To test for yeast infections tape impression is submitted to a staning technique that will illustrate the yeast- scotch tape is recommended and diff quick stain is a rapid and easy to use stain
Explain the plucked hair technique?
Individual hairs are plucked, important hair root is plucked out
Used to test for fungal infections of the hair and skin, eg- ringworm, démodétic mange ( mites live in the hair follicles
Samples for fungal examination should be placed onto a microscope slide and stained with Lactophenol cotton blue, affected material including hair shafts will stain blue
Describe the technique for skin scraping?
Performed using a scalpel blade to remove surface layer of skin , must cut deep enough to cause petechial blood oozing ( surface capillary bleeding )
Used to diagnose sub-surface parasites like Dexodex and Sarcoptes
List the steps of a skin scrape?
1) size ten scalpel with liquid paraffin, need microscope slide
, cover slip, gloves and overcoat
2) Clippers for long coats, select an appropriate area to be scraped
3) Dip scalpel in liquid paraffin, hold scalpel at angle between forefinger and thumb.
4) stretch the skin scrape an area at least 3cm in diameter, apply enough pressure for Capillary ooze, transfer skin cells onto microscope slide.
Explain the steps for taking a pustule sample?
Pustule should be extracted using a small sterile needle 1 or 2 ml syringe, express fresh sample directly onto the microscope slide and smeared or do a squash preparation by placing second slide directly on top at right angle to the 1st squashing.
- cover with cover slip, set up microscope look at skin cells at a x10
- determine Ventura scale reading, slide is examined straight away as parasite will move
- dispose of infected material and record results
The study of skin is called what?
Used to examine pruritis, scaling, greasy coats, malodorous skin and hair coat hair loss, skin lesions
What are the collection methods for feaces?
- From the ground- not ideal contaminated with grass,parasites and bacteria sample should be fresh
- Direct from rectum- clean and lubricate area to prevent skin flora being introduced to the sample and damage to the anal mucosa.
- For small pets use thermometer or glass rod
- ideally 5 grams of feaces should be collected.
Sample should be examined within 2 hours or stored in the fridge with as little air in the container as possible OR you can add double the volume of 10% Formal Saline
What could Black faeces mean?
Malaena - bleeding from the small intestine, changed blood
What could Red faeces mean?
Haematochezia - bleeding from the large intestine fresh blood
What could yellow faeces mean?
Malassimilation/Malabsorption of nutrients, liver disease
What could White feaces mean?
Eating too many bones or increase fat in diet
What could it mean if the faeces is fatty or mucoid?
Exocrine Pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or colitis
What are the identifiable objects in faeces?
- Foreign bodies
Direct wet preparation or Direct faecal smear are used to look for?
- Worm eggs
- Protazoan Oocyst's
- Partially digested food
What is the method for a fecal sample?
1) Take a microscope slide and add a drop of saline in the middle
2) Add an equal volume of Feaces
3) Add stain A) Lugols iodine - starch shows blue/black
B) Methylene Blue- shows in digested meat fibers
C) Sudan IV - shows fat gobules RED
4) Mix well make thin smear and add a cover slip
5) Low power look for worm eggs
6) High power look for Protozoa
Fecal flotation, feaces in salt, sugar solutions separates?
Heavy debris will sink to the bottom
Light eggs will rise to the surface
parasite eggs - 1:100 - 1:200
Salt sugar solutions - 1:200 - 1:350
What is the method for standard flotation ?
1) Mix faeces and solution thoroughly 3-4g in 50ml of water
2) Put mixture through a fine sieve
3) put the filtration in a test tube and leave 5mins
4) Pour off the supernatant then add the flotation solution
5) Fill a test tube to the top with a meniscus on top
6) Place a cover slip on top and leave for 10-20mins
7) Lift cover slip off vertically and place it on a slide
8) look under low power x25
What is centrifugal flotation?
More commonly used than standard
Spin the tubes at 1000 - 1500 rpm for 3-5 mins
The top fluid Meniscus is examined
List the Modified McMaster Technique ?
Determines number of eggs per gram of Feaces- Round worm float - Coccidial Oocyst's take 10mins to float
1) Measure 3grams of Feaces and place in glass beaker
2) Add 42mls water to the beaker and mix with feaces
3) Pour the mixture through a tea strainer or sieve, collect the filtrate into a separate bowl
4) Discard the debris in the sieve as hazardous waste
5) Add 15ml of filtrate to a test tube and centrifuge at 1500 rpm for 5mins
6) Remove supernatant and discard
7) Add a few millimetres of saturated salt solution to the sediment and resuspend , once suspended add further amounts of saturated salt solution until 15ml of fluid is present.
8) remove a small amount with pasture pipette and fill one side of a McMaster counting chamber
9) Repeat step 8 filing the other side of the McMaster slide
10) Examine the McMaster slide under x40 Magnification
11) using the grid on the McMaster slide examine each section recording eggs present. Repeat this technique using the grid on the other side of the slide
12) To calculate the number of eggs per gram of Feaces add the total together and multiply by 50
The number of eggs per gram of faeces = (eggs in grid 1 + eggs in grid 2) x50