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Flashcards in Lab Revision 3 Deck (48):
1

Describe the disease caused by Microsporum Canis and state how An animal may become infected with this organism??

Ringworm is a fungal infection caused by dermatphytes. It is multi cellular appearing as an inflamed circular lesion, edges have active fungal infection around the edges causing hair loss

Animals can be infected from direct contact from other animals and indirect contact from famines in the environment.

Treat with fungicidal topical wash, cream or oral anti fungal meds

2

Which two clinical conditions may be evaluated through the assessment of packed cell volume?

PVC is used to measure % of RBC used to asses

- Anemia
- Haemorrhage
- Dehydration

3

State three organisms may be assessed through the use of tape impressions??

The three organisms that may be assessed through tape impressions are
- cheyletiella
- Mallassezia patchy dermatitis
- yeast infections - diff quick stain is used on this

4

Explain the significance of a low urine specific gravity?

If animals specific gravity is lower than normal this may indicate that the animal is suffering from:
- dehydration
-acute renal failure
- shock, sediment or may be haemorrhaging

5

Which endoparasite causes a distended abdomen, stunted growth, coughing and diarrhoea in puppy's?

Toxocara canis
18cm. (IL)

6

Describe what advice you would give to the owner of a new puppy regarding the control and treatment of Dipylidium caninum?

I would advise the owner to:
- Regular worming and treatment for fleas
- puppy's can be wormed from 2 weeks of age
- worm with broad spectrum Anthelmintics treat for fleas,tapeworm

7

State the size, structure and appearance of Canine Parvo Virus?

Size= 20 nm

Structure = Icosandreal in shape

- Has a genetic core called 'Genome' this is protected by 'Capsid' ( protective layer)

- Capsid is made up of protein sub units. Sub units are called Capsomers

8

Explain the process of Bacterial Reproduction?

1) The cell wall grows 1st cell expands in size

2) when cell reaches a certain size the chroma zone replicates x2 identical chroma zones

3) As cell grows the cell membrane grows inwards

4) cell wall becomes a septum

5) Cell devides to produce two identical cells

9

Describe the Size, Structure and appearance of Microsporum canis??

Size= 3-9
Structure= Dermateophte Groupe
Microconida = 5-15 cells wide produce fungal spores

- produces Hyphae tiny tubles filled with cytoplasm + several Nuclei

- causes lesions caused by Micro Sporum canis fungal that causes ringworm

10

Explain the effect of the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani ??

- Toxin tetani spamming is produced by gram positive bacteria colostridium tetani

- Occurs through deep wounds causes symptoms such as muscle spasms in the neck , jaw , drooling sweating, fever and uncontrolled urination and deification

Need supportive care , antibiotics prevent by immunisation

11

What bacteria are responsible for producing exotoxins part??

Any toxin secreted by a microorganism into surrounding environment .ie. Ringworm or staphylococcal aureus

12

What type of bacteria are responsible for producing endotoxins ??

Salmonella or lipopoly saccharide gram negative bacteria

- toxin secreted by a Microorganism and released into surrounding enviro only when it dies

13

Briefly explain the procedure used to determine the packed cell volume of a sample??

A method to determine the PVC is by centra fusing blood capillary types separating blood into plasma, buffy and RBC Layers used to measure % of RBC in blood.

1) Fill the micro-haematocrit tube to 3quarters full with antiquagulated blood

2) Seal end of tube with Crystoseal

3) Centrifuge for 5mins at 10,000 RPM, ensuring open end points inwards always have centrifuge with another tube opposite.

4) Always wear gloves and agitate EDTA gently, measure PVC using Hawksley microhaematocrit

14

Briefly explain the procedure used to determine the specific gravity of a urine sample??

- Testing specific gravity with refractometer indicates concentration of animals kidney, also used to measure concentration of protein and serum

1) Dip stick not effective for animals won't measure (SG) higher than 1.3030 wear gloves

2) After still water has been added to refractometer calibrate to 1.000 on VSG scale water should be cleaned off

3) pipettes 1-2 drops of urine to the prism hold refractometer to light look through eye piece, read and record readings

15

Explain how Staphylococcus Albus bacteria is classified according to shape and gram stain??

Staphylococcus Albus is Gram Negative retains dye looks like clusters of grapes

16

Which Endoparasite penetrates the skin causing dermatitis??

Hook worm can cause mild dermatitis

Cheyletiella causes dermatitis as well

17

Explain the role of Ctenocephalides Felis in the transfers do Dipylidium caninum??

Animal passes egg filled tapeworm segments in feaces.

- Segments burst flea larvey eat individual eggs

- Animal swallows tapeworm carrying flea larvey

-,tapeworm matures in definitive host if not treated with Anthelmintics tape worm will release mature egg filled segments the cycle. Begins again

18

Which parameters can be assets through the use of a packed cell volume test??

PCV can be used to asses anemia,haemorrhage and dehydration

- Incresed PCV = dehydration as plasma levels are reduced - endotoxic shock or splenic problems

- Decreased RBC means decreased number of RBC = anaemia or haemorrhaging

19

Plasma should be clear what would it indicate if the plasma is Pink,yellow or cloudy??

Pink = Haemolocis

Yellow = liver disease, jaundice

Cloudy = Lymphaemic

20

When spun down what are the 3 layers of PVC called??

Plasma- clear straw colour - Top layer

Buffy Coat - WBC + Thrombocytes - Middle layer

RBC - bottom layer

21

What is the normal PCV range for a cat??

Cat = 24-45% PVC

22

What is the normal PCV range for a Dog??

Dog = 37 - 55% PCV

23

Which blood tube would you use to take a sample for a PCV test??

Pink/lilac blood tube

Blue capillary tube

24

Explain the procedure to carry out a differential WBC count??

Done by a stained blood smear ( diff quick)

- place one drop of blood at the end of microscope slide using glass spreader slide back at 45 degree angle towards blood allowing it to coat the end of spreader

- push spreader forward in a smooth non hesitant movement till blood is spread evenly along the microscope slide

- allow blood to air dry before staining, mark slide with name,date,time and initials, blood will be stained in 3 stages Red,Purple,Blue

25

Please explain the process of bacterial reproduction??

1) Cell growth 1st cell expands in size

2) when cell reaches a certain size the chromazone replicates x2 identical chromazones

3) As cell grows cell membrane grows inwards

4) cell wall becomes a septum

5) The cell devides to produce two identical cells

26

Which organisms may be assessed through the use of a skin scrape??

Ectoparasites such as Dexodex and Sarcoptes

27

Which organisms may be assessed through the use of a coat brushing??

Coat brushing may reveal Fleas,lice, cheyletiella and eggs

28

Please explain the procedure used to asses if an animal has Microsporum canis??

Microsporum canis can be diagnosed by noticeable lesions with hair loss in that area, areas are circular with active fungal infection around area.

- by placing a small sample of hair + crust on a culture plate growing fungus then examining colonies, plate will turn from red to yellow if it's Microsporum canis

- another way is by using a wood lamp Microsporum canis Florence's under fluorescent under UV light allow woods lamp to warm up before shining on animals coat 50 percent of cases will fluoresce under light apple green colour not fool proof

29

Please describe hoe toxoplasma Gondi reproduces??



- final host is the cat, Oocyst's are passed in the feaces of the cat and eaten by an intermediate host. Oocyst's reproduce asexually in the intestines of the intermediate host, Oocyst's can travel to the tissues they divide in to TACHYZOITES and BRADYZOITES, TACHYZOITES and BRADYZOITES remain in intermediate hosts tissues until they are eaten by the final host the cat.

- There will be an immune response from intermediate host = Rapidly multiplying stage of reproduction will slow down,, at this stage the parasite is referred to as a BRADYZOITE ( multiply slowly)

- Oocyst's divide forming TACHYZOITES and BRADYZOITES using BINARY FUSION
The nucleus of the Oocyst's devides 1st followed by the rest of the cell resulting in formation of two identical daughter cells

Daughter cells divide again once they reach an appropriate stage

- BRADYZOITES remain in intermediate hosts tissues until eaten by a definitive host

- Other animals become infected through consumption of uncooked meat ( animal tissues) human -> sheep

Asexual reproduction will occur once again in the tissues of the intermediate host leading to clinical signs as discussed

30

What ratio of tissue to fixative volume is there when sending a sample to a laboratory for tests??

10parts of fixing fluid to 1 part of tissue by volume 50g

Brain requires 96 hours of fixing fluid before cutting

31

What is the term used for assessing a tissue sample??

The term used is Biopsi or pathological sample biopsies can be taken from any part of the body

Hystopthology

32

What colour of blood tube would be used to asses for glucose in a sample ??

Yellow index paediatric with grey vaccutainer

33

What dose the term Lipaemia mean??

Fat gobules in serum or plasma sample looks cloudy

34

Describe the size,structure and appearance of Microsporum canis??

Ring worm fungus

Size= 3um in width

- produce Hypate tiny tubes filled with cytoplasm + several neucli

- Leison caused by Microsporum canis from 'Dematophyte Groupe'

5-15 cells wide Microconida

Legions can be 3-9 cm across

35

Describe the size,structure and appearance of Canine parvovirus ??

Size- 20nm in size, Icosandreal shaped

- Has a genetic core called 'Genome'
- protected by protein coat 'Capsid' capsid is made up of protein sun units called Capsomeres

36

What is another name for the Diff Quick stain??

Romanowsky stain or Leishmans staining

37

What are the implications for a human infected with toxocara canis??

Parasite is a zoonosis once ingested by humans larva migrate thought the tissues causing damage to the organs

Larvey migrate towards the eye causing visual dysfunction or blindness ( visceral larva migrans)

38

What advice would you give to and owner of a puppy suffering with toxocara canis?

- Regukar worming of puppy puppy's can be wormed from 2 weeks of age every two weeks until 6months of age

- wormed with a broad spectrum Anthelmintics

Then worm every 3months after 6months

39

Which endoparasite can cause anemia in puppy's?

Ucainaria stenocephalic ( northern hookworm ) plates not this one

Ancylostoma caninum teeth

40

What urine crystal is shaped like an envelope??

Struvite crystal or triple phosphate

41

Describe the procedure used to send a sample to a laboratory for testing?

Check its the right sample check its been preserved and labels correctly.

Wrap in cotton wool

42

Q35 urea 10mmol

Normal 5-11

43

What is the significance of the following blood parameters for a dog : Glu 7mmol/l

It's high normal range is 3.3 - 6

Samples been taken after dog has eaten

High glucose reading diabetes

44

Q40 please explaine the procedure to prepare a urine sample for microscopy of the sedement

- wear gloves PPE
- centrifuge sample at 1500rpm for 5mins

- remove the supernatant leaving the sediment in the base of the tube add one drop of sedi stain to the sediment then flick the tube to resuspend the sediment

- then place one drop of the solution on to a microscope slide place cover slip on top - avoid air bubbles can confuse readings

- dispose of used materials into hazardous waste examine the slide under low power x10 or x 40 battlement technique

- record findings

45

Describe the procedure used to send a sample to a laboratory for testing?

Check its the right sample check its been preserved and labels correctly.

Wrap in cotton wool

46

Q35 urea 10mmol

Normal 5-11

47

What is the significance of the following blood parameters for a dog : Glu 7mmol/l

It's high normal range is 3.3 - 6

Samples been taken after dog has eaten

High glucose reading diabetes

48

Q40 please explaine the procedure to prepare a urine sample for microscopy of the sedement

- wear gloves PPE
- centrifuge sample at 1500rpm for 5mins

- remove the supernatant leaving the sediment in the base of the tube add one drop of sedi stain to the sediment then flick the tube to resuspend the sediment

- then place one drop of the solution on to a microscope slide place cover slip on top - avoid air bubbles can confuse readings

- dispose of used materials into hazardous waste examine the slide under low power x10 or x 40 battlement technique

- record findings