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American Fine Arts 1650-1860 > Landscape > Flashcards

Flashcards in Landscape Deck (23):
1

Thomas Cole

1801-48

active 1830-40s

- Born in England. Comes to US in 1818

- 1st generation Hudson River School HRS

- Framing elements

- NYC generated attention from William Dunlauo, Asher Durand, John Trumbull,

- Luman Reed - a patron of HRS

- wilderness vs civilization -> industriualisation

- no specific depiction of trees

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The course of Empire

1834-36

  • Allegorical study
  • Classical references to warn americans - industrialization - will destroy humanity
  • Pastoral scene is Cole’s ideal scene for mankind
  • HRS integrally connected to God, Nature, and Man.
  • How does man get divine salvation? By maintaining a close relationship to God’s natural world.

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Thomas Cole

Course of Empire - 1834-36

Savage State

  • ideal state of natural world - untouched
  • calm
  • hunters teepees

 

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Thomas Cole

Course of Empire

Pastoral stage 1834-36

  • shepard. old vs. young. ruins. stone on mountains=god, cultivation of land
  • settled land. pre urban ancient greece

 

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Thomas Cole

Course of Empire

 Consummation of Empire stage 1834-36

  • mighty civilization
  • the man made is crowding out the natural divine

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Thomas Cole

Course of Empire

 Destruction stage 1834-36

  •  when man loses touch with nature.
  • Everything is falling apart
  • Fallen civilization

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Thomas Cole

Course of Empire

 Desolation stage 1834-36 

  • The works of man has faded. Nature wins

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Thomas Cole

the oxbow 1836

  • Wild/savage on one side and pastoral on the other
  • Progress is coming across
  • Storm blasted three in front, reminds us of god’s power

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Thomas Cole

1840 Voyage of life

Childhood Dawn. Emerging from a cave

Youth You are ready to go on your own

Manhood Praying on a boat. The angle is far away

Old age The angle had come back. And drags you to the light (life is over). The water I calm again.

10

ASHER B. DURAND

ASHER B. DURAND

1796-1886

  • Patron and contemporary of Cole (1835)

  • Leading landscape painter after Cole’s death

  • more specific depiction of trees

  • The beauty of nature. Create a mood with nature

  • Plays with the contrast of cultivated and wild

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Asher Durand

1849 - Kindred Spirits

  • Depiction of Cole and WC Bryant in the Catskills as a memorial piece
  • Romantic themes
  • Typical framing elements and makeup of landscape painting

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Asher Durand

1849 - Beeches

  • Arcadian scene of beeches (framing elements of the trees)
  • Pastoral landscape at its finest
  • has a shepard way off in the background, a cultivated landscape to some degree

1855 - In the Woods

  • A more ruskinian view of nature. Encouraging artist to look close on nature. A scene that is more so less wild. 

13

FREDERIC EDWIN CHURCH

 

FREDERIC EDWIN CHURCH

1826-1900

(active 1850s)

  • Attention to specificity of details
  • Supremely talented painter
  • Mid 20s trains with Cole for 3 years, Cole’s only student
  • Incredibly specific depictions of natural elements
  • Sublime→ in sky and in the subjects he chooses

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Frederick Church

Niagara Falls 1857

  • No framing elements, the waterfall itself
  • panoramic view
  • Niagara as an important american landscape
  • Shows someone who has studied how water goes over a rock and changes in color and tone as it falls
  •  Not only looking at mist to understand how it transforms vision but figuring out a way to replicate it throughout the scene
  • Seen as this ultimate point of sublimity

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Frederick Church

1859→ Heart of the Andes

  • South America as a destination
  • ATTENTION TO DETAIL
  • Every mini part of this work is a mini painting  
  • a church is depicted
  • Always God is omnipresent

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Frederick Church

1860→ Twilight in the Wilderness--

  • SUBLIME SKY
  • During the civil war – others were thinking of it as the twilight of society
  • Also referred to as - Worshipping at the alter of nature
  • The introduction of chromium colors made it possivle to paint the sunset

17

JOHN FREDERICK KENSETT

JOHN FREDERICK KENSETT

1816-72

(active late 1850s)

  • Begun his career as a engraver
  • Goes to Europe with Durand…
  • Returns to America 1847
  • Silvery, misty, sparkley
  • Known for his lake George scenes
  • Meditative contemplative relationship with nature

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JOHN FREDERICK KENSETT

1855 → Bash Bish Falls

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John Frederick Kensett,

Lake George, 1856

  • emerging vacationing class
  • these areas were becoming the summer destination for wealthy New York City families

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JASPER CROPSEY

1860→ Autumn on the Hudson River

  • known for making autumn autumnal
  • second rate painter
  • he was not in US when he painted it

21

Albert Bierstadt

Albert Bierstadt

1830-1902

(active 1860s)

  • Looking at the West as Arcadian
  • He trained in Germany, Dusseldorf
  • Moody and tonal painter. Mountains fading out. A sense of space and sparseness
  • The landscape had a sense of the sublime
  • An emotional description of the drama that cannot be caught in a photo.

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Albert Bierstadt

1863

  • Not as metrically painted as church. You cannot tell each tree
  • An extreme and dramatic proportion of nature
  • Compositionally he is not as intuitive as Church
  • Natives and their artifacts in the front. Major focal point in the center. You are drawn back and forth between the foreground and the background

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Albert Bierstadt

Looking Up Yosemite Valley, 1865-67

  • The landscape is fixed to look more romantic and clean. To exaggerate the experience of the view
  • One of the most used view points of the montains. At this time, this view gets established as the view to show the valley.
  • The distortions of the view makes the result look more dramatic than the real view.