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NB 3 Dev & Psych > Language and Aphasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language and Aphasia Deck (22)
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describe language development 

  • 5-7 month: language-like sounds
  • 7-8 months: well-formed syllables
  • 1-2 years: first word "mama", understand connection between word "mama" and visual/acoustic appearance
  • 2 years: speak in phrases (children language)
  • 3 years: most of the time correct use of words and grammar, they understand the rules of grammar
  • 5 years: vocabulary of around 14,000 words


describe the function of the left hemisphere (in most people)

  • language comprehension
  • language expression
  • lexicon (although there is evidence of bilateral representations)
  • phonetic assembly 
  • phonetic procession


describe the function of the right hemisphere 

  • communicative and emotional prosody (stress, timing, intonation)
    • right anterior damage: wrong intonation
    • right posterior damage: difficulty in interpretation
  • pragmatics of language
    • damage of right hemisphere: difficulty in construction of sentences into a story
    • difficulty in understanding jokes, sarcasm


describe the location of Broca's and Wericke's area in the brain


describe the language processing of incoming spoken word

  • auditory signal → auditory pathway → primary auditory cortex → Wernicke's area → evocation of the word's meaning in brain areas near to Wernicke's area 


describe the language processing of outgoing spoken word

  • nonverbal meanings → conversion to an acoustic image in Wenicke's area → arcuate fasciculus → Broca's area → motor cortex


describe language processing when reading

  • input from left visual cortex → Wernicke's area → evocation of the word's meaning in brain areas near to Wernicke's area


describe language processing when writing

  • nonverbal meanings → conversion to a motor/visual image in Wernicke's area → arcuate fasciculus → Broca's area → premotor area above Broca's area



describe components of an aphasia examination

  • comprehension
    • spoken language
    • written language
  • naming
    • visual confrontation naming
    • auditory naming
    • tactile naming
  • repetition
  • expressive speech
    • fluent/nonfluent
    • rhythm, prosody
    • content (paraphasia)
    • articulation (dysarthria)
  • writing


describe Wernicke's aphasia


describe the branches of the MCA and what is supplies (Broca's vs Wernicke's)

  • superior division: Broca's aphasia
  • inferior division: Wernicke's


describe Broca's aphasia


describe conduction aphasia


describe Gerstmann syndrome


describe global aphasia


describe transcortical sensory aphasia


describe transcortical motor aphasia


describe the aphasia classification tree


describe alexia

  • word blindness, inability to read
  • disconnection between visual and language system
  • alexia can result from disruptions in transfer of visual information to left hemisphere language regions
  • damage to left visual cortices and the splenium (posterior part) of the corpus callosum


describe lesions in alexia


describe dyslexia

  • difficulty in reading and spelling (despite normal eyesight and hearing, adequate education and normal IQ)
  • 10-30% of population
  • possible causes:
    • children with dyslexia have not developed phonological awareness (ability to attend individual sounds and associate them with letters)
    • abnormalities in ventral (word identification) and dorsal (orthographic-to-phonetic) visual-auditory pathways