Language and Aphasia Flashcards Preview

NB 3 Dev & Psych > Language and Aphasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language and Aphasia Deck (22)
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1

describe language development 

  • 5-7 month: language-like sounds
  • 7-8 months: well-formed syllables
  • 1-2 years: first word "mama", understand connection between word "mama" and visual/acoustic appearance
  • 2 years: speak in phrases (children language)
  • 3 years: most of the time correct use of words and grammar, they understand the rules of grammar
  • 5 years: vocabulary of around 14,000 words

2

describe the function of the left hemisphere (in most people)

  • language comprehension
  • language expression
  • lexicon (although there is evidence of bilateral representations)
  • phonetic assembly 
  • phonetic procession

3

describe the function of the right hemisphere 

  • communicative and emotional prosody (stress, timing, intonation)
    • right anterior damage: wrong intonation
    • right posterior damage: difficulty in interpretation
  • pragmatics of language
    • damage of right hemisphere: difficulty in construction of sentences into a story
    • difficulty in understanding jokes, sarcasm

4

describe the location of Broca's and Wericke's area in the brain

5

describe the language processing of incoming spoken word

  • auditory signal → auditory pathway → primary auditory cortex → Wernicke's area → evocation of the word's meaning in brain areas near to Wernicke's area 

6

describe the language processing of outgoing spoken word

  • nonverbal meanings → conversion to an acoustic image in Wenicke's area → arcuate fasciculus → Broca's area → motor cortex

7

describe language processing when reading

  • input from left visual cortex → Wernicke's area → evocation of the word's meaning in brain areas near to Wernicke's area

8

describe language processing when writing

  • nonverbal meanings → conversion to a motor/visual image in Wernicke's area → arcuate fasciculus → Broca's area → premotor area above Broca's area

9

10

describe components of an aphasia examination

  • comprehension
    • spoken language
    • written language
  • naming
    • visual confrontation naming
    • auditory naming
    • tactile naming
  • repetition
  • expressive speech
    • fluent/nonfluent
    • rhythm, prosody
    • content (paraphasia)
    • articulation (dysarthria)
  • writing

11

describe Wernicke's aphasia

12

describe the branches of the MCA and what is supplies (Broca's vs Wernicke's)

  • superior division: Broca's aphasia
  • inferior division: Wernicke's

13

describe Broca's aphasia

14

describe conduction aphasia

15

describe Gerstmann syndrome

16

describe global aphasia

17

describe transcortical sensory aphasia

18

describe transcortical motor aphasia

19

describe the aphasia classification tree

20

describe alexia

  • word blindness, inability to read
  • disconnection between visual and language system
  • alexia can result from disruptions in transfer of visual information to left hemisphere language regions
  • damage to left visual cortices and the splenium (posterior part) of the corpus callosum

21

describe lesions in alexia

22

describe dyslexia

  • difficulty in reading and spelling (despite normal eyesight and hearing, adequate education and normal IQ)
  • 10-30% of population
  • possible causes:
    • children with dyslexia have not developed phonological awareness (ability to attend individual sounds and associate them with letters)
    • abnormalities in ventral (word identification) and dorsal (orthographic-to-phonetic) visual-auditory pathways