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Flashcards in Addiction I Deck (13)
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1

describe dependence syndrome

  • 3 or more of the following together at some time during the previous year:
    • a strong desire to take the substance
    • difficulties in controlling substance-taking behavior
    • physiological withdrawal
    • evidence of tolerance
    • progresstive neglect of alternative pleasures/interests
    • persistent use despite harmful consequences

2

describe addiction type 1 vs addiction type 2 in Cloninger's tri-dimensional personality theory

3

describe the ventral tegemental reward system

  • addictive substances as well as electrical brain stimulation activate the brain reward mechanism (the ventral tegmental dopamine system)
  • dopamine is a neurotransmitter, which is able to induce feelings like euphoria and orgasm
  • all addictive substances are able to increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens resulting in a release of dopamine

4

5

6

describe electrical stimulation of VTA

  • neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) send their axons to nucleus accumbens, striatum and frontal cortex (structures involved in motivation)
  • electrical stimulation in midbrain activate dopaminergic neurons in VTA → greater release of dopamine in nucleus accumbens
  • dopamine receptor blockers (haloperidol) reduce the rewarding effect
  • midbrain dopaminergic neurons → reward dependent learning

7

describe the location of the effect of drugs (alcohol, heroin, cocaine, nicotine, THC)

8

contrast psychic and physical dependence

  • psychic dependence
    • experience of impaired control
  • physical dependence
    • tolerance and withdrawal symptoms

9

describe alcohol detoxification

  • symptoms:
    • tachycardia
    • hypertension
    • hallucinations
    • nausea, vomiting
  • life-threatening, sometimes ICU-treatment necessary 

10

describe alcohol effect on neurotransmitters

11

describe medical treatment for alcohol withdrawal

12

describe opiate detoxification (cold detox)

  • symptoms like gastrinointestinal flu
  • not life-threatening
  • symptomatic medication against:
    • nausea
    • diarrhea
    • tachycardia/hypertension
  • 2nd and 3rd days are worst
  • not longer than 5-7 days
  • hyposomnia can continue for weeks

13

describe warm opiate detoxification

  • substitution of opiates with methadone
  • reduction of methadone-dose over approx. 3 weeks
  • symptomatic medication against:
    • nausea
    • diarrhea
    • tachycardia/hypertension
  • problem: long stay on a closed ward
  • high chance of breaking off the treatment