Sex and the Brain Flashcards Preview

NB 3 Dev & Psych > Sex and the Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sex and the Brain Deck (14)
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1

describe the classification of sex differences (sexual dimorphism, sex differences, sex convergence)

  • sexual dimorphism: endpoint consists of 2 forms (one form in males, another in females)
    • copulatory behavior, bird song
  • sex differences: endpoint exists on a continuum and average is different between males and females
    • pain threshold, fear, anxiety, learning, memory
  • sex convergence: endpoint is the same but neural underpinnings are different
    • parental behavior, problem-solving strategies

2

describe sex ratios in CNS disorders

higher freq. of developmental onset disorders in males and adult onset disorders in females

  • male-biased conditions
    • ADHD 10:1
    • autism spectrum disorder 4:1
    • dyslexia 3:5:1
    • Tourette syndrome 3:1
  • female-biased conditions
    • anorexia 13:1
    • autoimmune disorders 3:1
    • depression 2:1
    • anxiety disorder 2:1

3

the _____ is 4x larger in male rats than in female rats

the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is 4x larger in male rats than in female rats

4

5

describe the differences seen in human suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus

6

describe the relationship between INAH-3 and sexual orientation and gender identity

  • INAH-3 is larger in males than in females
  • INAH-3 and sexual orientation
    • maker for sexual orientation
    • smaller in homosexual than heterosexual men
    • same size in women and in homosexual men
  • INAH-3, BNST is smaller in transgender persons (M to F) than in males and similar in size as in females

7

the bed nucleus stria terminalis (BNST) is (greater/lesser)? in males than in females

the bed nucleus stria terminalis (BNST) is greater in males than in females

8

name the 5 regions of the female brain that has higher gray matter density than males

  • left and right caudate
  • left and right hippocampus
  • left inf. frontal
  • right orbitofrontal
  • left and right gyrus rectus

9

describe advantages in tasks between male and females

  • visual rotation advantage in males 
  • language, reading, verbal fluency advantage in females

10

which gene is the sex determining gene and where is it located?

the SRY gene on the Y chromosome is the sex determining gene

11

describe the critical periods in sexual differentiation

12

describe the molecular mechanism of testosterone action

  • testosterone does not act directly ont he cells of the developing nervous system; it gets converted into estradiol via aromatase, which then acts on cells

13

describe AIS (androgen insensitivity syndrome)

  • AIS is caused by a mutation in the gene that produces androgen receptors and leads to a female phenotype

14

describe diethylstilbestrol (DES) daughters

  • normal: SDN larger in males than in females
  • experiment: SDN larger in DES treated females than in female controls (DES also blunted LH secretion)
  • conclusion: DES exposure during the critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain causes masculinization of the brain