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Flashcards in Learning Theory II Deck (17)
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describe classical conditioning of drug-opposite effects

  • the direct effects of some drugs may be classically conditioned
  • however, the effect of introducing some drugs into the body also involves a compensatory response, opposite to the direct drug affects
  • such drug opposite effects are also subject to conditioning:
    • conditioned tolerance
    • conditioned withdrawal


describe Siegel's conclusions about drug tolerance through classical conditioning

  • through classical conditioning aspects of the tolerance response become associated with environmental stimuli and occur prior to drug administration
  • such CRs are viewed as anticipatory and prepare the body for arrival of the drug


lack of conditioned tolerance

  • the normal cues are no longer present


describe conditioned withdrawal

  • subjects were physically dependent methadone users experiencing withdrawal symptoms during detox
  • conditioning trials involved presenting subjects with smell of spearmint (CS) during withdrawal
  • through classical conditioning, the CS later elicited a CR mimicking aspects of the withdrawal syndrome
  • O'Brien concludes that conditioned withdrawal symptoms increase likelihood of relapse (use of drug quells such aversive withdrawal-like symptoms)


clicker #2

CSs that triggered drug-opposite effects, resulting in withdrawal symptoms


describe drug-like effect in classical conditioning


describe an everyday example of drug-like effect


describe conditioned tolerance


describe classical conditioning of phobias


describe classical conditioning involved in PTSD and acute stress disorder 


describe conditioning of panic attacks

  • initial panic attacks occur in an environment that involves both external and internal stimuli
    • external stimuli: shopping malls and escalators
    • internal stimuli: somatic sensations such as increased HR, palpitations, breathlessness
  • through conditioning, such stimuli may in the future serve as CSs that elicit anxiety
  • this leads to spiraling anxiety, physical symptoms, and catastrophic thoughts (full-blown panic attack)


describe agoraphobic avoidance

  • many people who develop panic attacks and panic disorder develop agroraphobic avoidance of external and internal stimuli previously associated with panic attack
  • external CSs that are often avoided include malls, driving, and standing in line
  • the person may also seek to avoid internal CSs such as sensations resembling those experienced in the panic attacks
    • activites that produce elevated heart rate (exercise, scary movies, high caffeine intake, sexual activity) may be avoided


describe the acquisition of a fetish


clicker #3

the prior needle injection


clicker #4

red, white and blue capsule (without acetaminophen)

  • used to be neutral, but it got paired with acetaminophen and now it takes on the value of acetaminophen