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Flashcards in Neurodevelopmental Disorders Deck (16)
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describe the criteria for intellectual disability

  • deficits in intellectual functions
    • confirmed by clinical assessment and individualized, standardized intelligence testing
  • deficits in adaptive functioning
    • conceptutal, social and practical domains that result in failure to meet dev. and sociocultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility
    • the deficits limit functioning in one or more activities in daily life
  • the onset is during the developmental period


describe mild vs moderate IQ level 


describe severe vs profound IQ level (and adaptive functioning)


describe global developmental delay

  • child fails to meet expected developmental milestones in several areas of intellectual (cognitive) functioning
  • cilnical severity level cannot be reliably assessed
  • diagnosis reserved for children under the age of 5
  • reassessment required after a period of time, if possible


describe autism spectrum disorder

  • persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by:
    • deficits in social-emotional reciprocity
    • deficits in nonverbal communicative behavior used for social interaction
    • deficits in developing, maintaining and understanding relationships
  • restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least 2 of the following
    • stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects or speech
    • insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior
    • highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus
    • hyper- or hypo- reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment
  • symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (usually diagnosed by age 2)
  • symptoms cause clinically significant impairment social, occupational or other important areas of current functioning
  • not better accounted for by Intellectual Disability


describe specifiers for autism spectrum disorders

  • with or without accompanying intellectual disability
  • with or without accompanying language impairment
  • associated with a known medical, genetic or environmental factor
  • associated with another neurodevelopmental, mental, or behavioral disorder
  • with catatonia


describe levels of severity in autism spectrum disorder

  • Level 1: some support needed
  • Level 2: substantial support needed
  • Level 3: very substantial support needed


describe language disorder

  • persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language across modalities (spoken, written, sign, etc.)
    • reduced vocabulary
    • limited sentence structure
    • impairments in discourse


  • language abilities substantially below age expectations


  • onset in the early developmental period


  • not attributable to sensory impairment, motor dysfunction, other medical or neurological condition, or not better explained by intellectual disability or global developmental delay

diagnoses made before age 4 may be unreliable


describe speech-sound disorder

  • persistent difficulty with speech sound production that interferes with speech intelligibility or prevents verbal communication or messages


  • the disturbance causes limitations in effective communication that interferes with social, academic, occupational performance


  • onset of symptoms in early dev. period


  • not attributable to congenital or acquired conditions, other medical or neurological conditions, hearing loss or brain injury

overall, speech should be mostly intelligible at age 3-4


describe social (pragmatic) communication disorder

  • persistent difficulties in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication
    • deficits in using communication for social purposes (greeting, sharing info)
    • impairment in ability to change communication to match context
    • difficulty following the rules for communication
    • difficulting understanding implicit meanings


  • the deficits results in functional limitations in effective communication


  • onset in the early developmental period


  • not attributable to low abilities in word structure and grammar, other medical or neurological condition and not better explained by another mental disorder

diagnosis is rarely made before the age of 4-5


describe childhood-onset fluency disorder (stuttering)

  • persistent disturbances in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that are inappropriate for age and level of language skill
    • sound and syllable repetitions
    • sound prolongations of consonants and vowels
    • broken words
    • blocking--pauses in speech
    • words produced with excessive tension
    • monosyllabic whole-word repetitions


  • the disturbance causes anxiety about speaking or limits effective communication


  • onset of symptoms in the early dev period (different from adult-onset fluency disorder)


  • not attributable to speech-motor or sensory deficit, dysfluency associated with a neurological insult, other medical conditions and not better explained by another mental disorder

usually diagnosed by age 6

65-85% of children recover from the dysfluency

the dysfluency is often absent during oral reading, singing or talking to an inanimate object


describe specific learning disorder

  • difficulty learning and using academic skills, as indicated by the presence of at least one of the following symptoms persisting for at least 6 months, despite targeted interventions:
    • inaccurate or slow and effortful word reading
    • difficulty understanding the meanings of what is read
    • difficulties with spelling
    • difficulties with written expression
    • difficulties mastering number sense, facts or calculation
    • difficulties with mathematical reasoning


  • the affected academic skills are:
    • substantially and quantifiably below those expected for the individual's chronological age
    • cause significant interference with academic or occupational functioning or activities of daily living
    • as confirmed by individually administered acheivement measures and comprehensive clinical assessment


  • the learning difficulties began during school-age years but may not fully manifest until the academic demands exceed capacity


  • not better accounted for by intellectual disabilities, impaired sensory abilities, lack of proficiency in the language instruction, inadequate instruction or other mental or neurological disorders

requires psychoeducational assessment


describe ADHD

  • a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity
  • some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 12 
  • some impairment from the symptoms is present in 2 or more settings (e.g. at school, work, home)
  • there must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning
  • the symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of another mental disorder


describe inattention as seen in ADHD

  • six or more (5 in patients over 17) specific symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level, and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational activities

    • lack of attention to details

    • difficulty in remaining focused

    • may seem not to be listening

    • lack of follow through

    • difficulty organizing tasks

    • avoids tasks that require sustained effort

    • loses things

    • easily distracted 

    • forgetful


describe hyperactivity/impulsivity as seen in ADHD

  • six or more specific symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social and academic/occupational functioning
    • fidgets, squirms in seat
    • leaves seat, when being seated is expected
    • runs about, inappropriately (adult may feel restless)
    • unable to remain quiet while at play or leisure
    • on the go; motor driven
    • may talk excessively
    • blurts out, cannot wait for turn
    • interrupts, intrudes


describe specifiers in ADHD diagnosis

  • ADHD, Combined Presentation
    • both criteria A1 and A2 are met for the past 6 months
  • ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive
    • criteria A1 met for the past 6 months
  • ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive
    • criteria A2 met for the past 6 months

severity is specified: mild, moderate, severe