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Flashcards in CBT II Deck (15)
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describe stimulus control as a treatment

  • pt learns to perform a behavior only under certain stimulus conditions
    • ex: sleeping or eating only at set times and places
    • goal: bring such behaviors under appropriate stimulus control
    • commonly used in CBT programs:
      • weight reduction: to break the learned association between eating and a host of inapprorpiate stimuli
      • sleeping: bed should be a stimulus for sleep (or sex) ONLY


give an example of stimulus control and eating behavior

  • problem: eating has become associated with a number of stimulus situations and internal mood states 
    • e.g. when socializing or watching TV, or when depressed, happy or anxious
  • the presence of these discriminatory stimuli make the behavior of "eating" much more likely
  • treatment goal: bring "eating behavior" under appropriate stimulus control
    • e.g. eating only at mealtimes in dining room


describe CBT approaches to pain management

  • focus is on pain behaviors such as complaining, missing work and inactivity
  • goal: stop reinforcing such pain behaviors and reinforce only healthy behaviors
  • pain-relieving drugs are very powerful reinforcers and how they are administered is important:
    • time contingent: meds made available on set time schedule -- does not reinforce pain behaviors
    • pain contingent: seen in hospice settings


goal not necessarily to eliminate pain but to _____ associated with it 

goal not necessarily to eliminate pain but to lessen disability associated with it 


describe hypnosis used in CBT pain management

  • hypnosis: an underused pain management option
  • works through a combination of relaxation, distraction and perceptual alteration
  • pain is a subjective experience--most pts can learn to alter their pain sensations somewhat through hypnosis
  • ex: a post-hypnotic suggestion might be that the pain is another sensation such as warmth


describe cognitive distortions

  • all or none thinking: it's all "black and white" -- "I'm either a success or a failure"
  • overgeneralization: viewing a negative event in our life as a never-ending pattern of defeat
  • mental filter: dwelling on negatives, ignoring positives
  • jumping to conclusions: assuming others are reacting negatively toward you without evidence
  • labeling: instead of saying "I made a mistake" you tell yourself "I'm a fool" or "I'm a loser"


describe the "musts and shoulds" cognitive distortion

  • when the world doesn't conform to our irrational demands, we become emotionally upset and depressed
    • I must have this man or woman in my life
    • I must be accepted by this group of people
    • I should be getting all A's


describe cognitive restructuring

  • involves the therapist identifying, challenging and correcting such distorted and irrational ways of viewing the world


describe rational emotive therapy

  • RET emphasizes that it is our thoughts, beliefs and interpretation of events that cause our emotioanl distress and depression


describe the negative triad

  • depression is caused by our negative interpretation of self, life events and future
    • negative thinking causes depression
  • negative "self-schema": negative filters through which we view the world distort world and cause depression


describe learned helplessness

  • when healthy avoidance responses are prevented, passivity, and depression result, along with the self-defeating belief
    • "why should I make the effort to feel better when nothing I do helps?"


describe social cognitive theory

  • emphasizes learning through observation (modeling and vicarious conditioning)
  • much human behavior is learned through observing others interacting with the environment
  • a person's behavior is both influenced by and influences personal factors (e.g. personality and the way we think) and the social environment


describe dialectical behavior therapy

  • DBT involves a range of CBT including behavioral skills training, emotion regulation and mindfulness
  • aimed at breaking the vicious cycle of addictive, explosive, self-harmful behavior, primarily in patients with borderline PD
  • emphasis is on pt acceptance of themselves as they are (not as they'd like to be) and their commitment to change destructive behaviors


describe mindfulness-based stress reduction

  • aimed at stress reduction and pain management
  • based on mindfulness meditation and yoga 
  • mindfulness: nonjudgmental acceptance of what is--now--being fully present in the moment


describe the system approach in family and couples therapy

  • a systems approach: views pathology as a reflection of disturbance within family or dyad
  • the family is a self-regulating system--it seeks equilibrium and resists change
  • the therapist works to disrupt the family's dysfunctional equilibrium
  • this intervention may be resisted, resulting in non-compliance on part of family or couple