Learning Theory III: Operant Conditioning Flashcards Preview

NB 3 Dev & Psych > Learning Theory III: Operant Conditioning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Theory III: Operant Conditioning Deck (25):
1

describe operant conditioning

  • behavior is a function of its consequences--it is increased or decreased as a result of the consequences that follow it
  • Law of Effect: behavior followed by a pleasant consequence is strenghtened (reinforced) and tends to be repeated; that followed by an unpleasant consequence is weakened (punished) and less likely to be repeated
  • in contrast to classical conditioning, operant involves primarily voluntary behaviors

2

describe positive reinforcement

  • a pleasurable stimulus is applied following a behavior
  • the behavior is strengthened as a result
  • contingency: the reinforcing stimulus is said to be contingent upon performance of the behavior

3

according to the behaviorist position, too little positive reinforcement in life results in ______

according to the behaviorist position, too little positive reinforcement in life results in depression

  • this leads to a downward spiral of increasing levels of depression

4

according to a cognitive therapist position, the primary source to depression would be _____

according to a cognitive therapist position, the primary source to depression would be negative thinking

5

ini the case of patients suffering from _____, physician attention may inadvertently reinforce unnecessary clinic visits

ini the case of patients suffering from somatic symptom disorders, physician attention may inadvertently reinforce unnecessary clinic visits

6

describe the factors that affect the effectiveness of reinforcement

  • immediacy: the reinforcer is most effective when presented immediately after the behavior
  • consistency: reinforcing every instance of the behavior results in the behavior being learned most quickly
  • contingencies should be made clear

7

describe the schedules of reinforcement

  • continuous reinforcement: every instance of the behavior is reinforced
    • result: quicker learning but the behavior extinguishes more quickly
  • intermittent reinforcement: not every instance of the behavior is reinforced
    • result: behavior not learned as quickly but is more resistant to extinction
    • intermittent reinforcement delivered on a variable ratio schedule is most resistant to extinction (a slot machine that pays off on average every 10 times)

8

child B, since intermittent reinforcement is harder to extinguish

9

contrast primary vs secondary reinforcers

  • primary reinforcer: naturally reinforcing
    • food, water, sex, some drugs, nurturance
  • secondary reinforcer: acquire their reinforcing ability through learning
    • applause, an "A" grade, a gold medal, money

10

describe nuances with food as a reinforcer

  • satiation: primary reinforcers are subject to satiation
    • the subject gets enough of the reward and its no longer effective
    • better to use secondary reinforcers
  • food as reinforcement: feeding is often recommended to soothe a complaining infant; it tends to work, even when hunger isn't the problem 
    • recent research suggests an association between use of food as a reinforcer and being overweight at 1 year
    • behavioral patterns are established early--the contingency of food improving emotion and depression may prove problematic later in life

11

desccribe negative reinforcement

  • an aversive stimulus is removed, terminated, or avoided following the behavior
  • the behavior is strengthened as a result, and more likely to be repeated
  • example: the behavior of seeking medical attention often results in alleviation of discomfort, pain or anxiety
    • this behavior is thus negatively reinforcement and is more likely to be repeated
    • exams removed, curfew removed, no homework, exemption from chores

12

clicker #2

negatively reinforced

13

summarize positive vs negative reinforcement

14

describe avoidance behavior

  • behaviors that allow the person to avoid an anxiety provoking stimulus or situation are referred to as avoidance behaviors
  • such behaviors are negatively reinforced--they are more likely to be repealed because they allow the person to avoid the unpleasant anxiety associated with the stimulus
  • avoidance behaviors are seen in phobias, OCD, PTSD angr agoraphobia

15

describe operant conditioning and drug dependence

  • the reinforcement theory of drug dependence involves both positive and negative reinforcement
    • positive reinforcement: some psycho-active drugs are powerful reinforcers and strengthen drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors
    • negative reinforcement: in a physically dependent subject, the drug also terminates unpleasant withdrawal effects, thereby strengthening drug taking/seeking behavior (and the needle habit)

16

describe the effect of stimulus control

  • whether a previously reinforced behavior is actually performed often depends on the presence of certain stimuli in the environment
  • if such stimuli have in the past been associated with reinforcement of the behavior, they are referred to as antecedent or discriminative stimuli (SDs)
  • the presence of such stimuli make performance of the behavior more likely because they predict reinforcement
  • so, behavior is the result of both its consequences and antecedent environmental stimuli

17

explain the example of eating and stimulus control

18

describe positive vs negative punishments

  • positive punishment: application of an aversive stimulus contingent upon performance of the behavior
    • examples: spanking, yelling, shocking
  • negative punishment: removal of a pleasant or desirable stimulus contingent upon the behavior
    • examples: removing privileges, removing points, withdrawing attention

19

describe factors affecting effectiveness of punishment

  • punishment is most effective when it is presented consistently, immediately following a behavior and with the contingencies made clear

20

describe primary vs secondary punishers

  • primary punishers are naturally punishing (shock, pain, nausea)
  • secondary punishers are also learned (ridicule, banishment from one's group, an F grade)

21

describe operant extinction

  • occurs when reinforcement is consistently withheld following a previously reinforced behavior
  • post-extinction burst: a rapid burst of the behavior may be observed at the beginning of extinction trials, followed by extinction
    • kid that is screaming is ignored, so they scream louder and louder

22

contrast operant extinction vs punishment

  • both extinction and punishment weaken behavior
  • in the case of operant extinction, when a previously reinforced behavior is emitted, nothing happens (ignoring screaming child) (reinforcement used to happen)
  • however, in the case of punishment, a behavior is emitted and something happens (the behavior is followed by a consequence)

23

negatively reinforced

24

weight loss has been both positively reinforced (compliments) and negatively reinforced (removal of teasing)

25

discriminative; negatively reinforced

  • antecedent stimuli = discriminative (always)