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Flashcards in Psychological Testing Deck (25)
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name 4 methods to determine reliability of a test

  • test-retest method: correlation between performance of subjects on the same form of the test at different times
  • alternate forms method: correlation between performance of subjects on two equivalent forms of the test
  • internal consistency method: several different methods involving establishing the correlation between diff. parts of the exam
  • inter-scorer (or inter-rater) method: establishes the correlation (agreement) between scores obtained by different clinicians when scoring the test
    • generally not an issue with objective tests, but an issue with subjective tests (Rorscharch) and TAT


describe the 2 types of validity 

  • content validity: are the test items representative of the domain sampled?
    • commonly used to validate teacher-made tests
  • criterion-referenced validity: how well do test results correlate with a direct and independent measure (criterion) of what the test is desinged to measure?


describe the 2 types of criterion-referenced validity

  • predictive validity: (correlation between test score and score on criterion test in the future)
    • test: MCAT
    • criterion: final med school GPA
  • concurrent validity: (correlation between test score and score on criterion test now)
    • test: HAM-D
    • criterion: current clinician's ratings of depression


list the most common IQ tests in the US

  • WISC-V
  • Stanford-Binet scale


describe aptitude tests

  • measure specific abilities relevant to performance in academic or vocational settings
    • SAT
    • GRE
    • MCAT
    • US civil service exams


describe acheivement tests

  • assess how much a person has learned in a specific educational domain
    • in the US, tests given in primary school such as the Iowa and Stanford achievement tests


describe neuropsychological batteries

  • assess behavioral, cognitive and personality deficits following head trauma or neurological disease
  • based on these behavioral deficits, inferences are made regarding localization of damage to brain


describe intelligence and intelligence testing

  • intelligence is considered to be an individual's innate capacity for learning
    • mostly inherited
    • highly correlated with educational achievement
  • tests are culturally-specific and may be subject to cultural bias, asking about objects, words and practices common in one culture but not in others


describe IQ (intellience quotient)

  • IQ is a standard score
    • mean: 100
    • standard deviation (SD): 15
  • tends to be stable throughout adulthood, but fluctuates in teens
  • IQ in mental disorders:
    • IQ varies across all ranges across disorders
    • symptoms may interfere with IQ assessment
    • IQ not related to suicide risk


describe IQ distribution


describe how IQ changes with age

  • very little decline in elderly
  • verbal ability holds up best
  • perceptual and motor abilities show some decline
  • increased exposure to verbal behavior early in life leads to higher IQ


describe the WISC-V test

  • the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: intelligence test for children ages 6-16
  • the WISC-V yields measures of general intelligence along with specific indicies including verbal comprehension, visual spatial, fluid reasoning, working memory, processing speed


describe personality tests and the 2 types

  • assess those relativfely enduring and stable beliefs, values, attitudes and traits that characterize behavior across situations and over time
  • 2 types:
    • objective: objective question format, norms and stadardization (MMPI-2)
    • projective: subjective format and scoring (Rorschach)


describe the MMPI-2 test

  • most commonly used personality test in field of mental health
  • objective format and scoring
    • 567 T/F questions yield scores on 10 personality dimensions
  • computer-scoring yields a narrative report of the patient's important personality features


describe the usage of MMPI-2

  • commonly used in inpatient psychiatric evaluations for differential diagnosis and in expert witness forensic cases
  • in medical cases involving physical symptoms with no apparent organic basis, the MMPI-2 assists in identification of patients who:
    • are preoccupied with their health
    • tend to exaggerate and complain about physical symptoms
    • tend to convert psychological conflict into physical symptoms


the MMPI was developed through the method of _____

the MMPI was developed through the method of empirical criterion keying



describe the HAM-D scale

  • the clinician rates symptoms and severity
  • one of the most widely used depression scales
  • good reliability and validity--becoming gold standard as outcome variable in psycho-pharmacological clinical trials


describe the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)

  • assesses symptoms of depression such as:
    • cognition - guilt, feelings of being punished
    • physical symptoms - fatigue, weight loss, lack of interest in sex
  • 21 items, self-administered
  • scored by summing the value (0-3) of the statement selected for each question item 


describe what the BDI-II is based on 

  • the BDI-II is based on Beck's view of depression as a "negative triad" involving negative views of self, world and future
    • negative schema developed early in life
    • results in the world being viewed as negative and hopeless
    • theory assumes such negative cognitions to be the cause of depression, not the result


describe when screening for depression in primary health care settings is recommended

  • screening within at-risk populations such as pregnant and postpartum women allows for earlier and more effective intervention (e.g. CBT, ADs)
  • the BDI and Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ-2 and PHQ-9) are commonly used 


describe type A behavior pattern

  • a cluster of personality traits associated with increased prevalence of coronary heart disease
  • such traits include a strong sense of time urgency, and being impatient, highly competitive and easily angered


describe why projective personality tests are not as good

  • ambiguous test stimuli
  • subjective scoring
  • lower reliability
  • validity: difficult to demonstrate due to subjectivity and psychodynamic concepts


describe the projective hypothesis

  • when confronted with an ambiguous stimulus and asked to make sense of it, a person's response will reflect unconscious dynamics and conflicts
  • that is, stimuli from the environment (including test stimuli) are interpreted according to the patient's needs, motives and unconscious conflicts


describe the thematic apperception test (TAT)

  • features ambiguous scenes of human interaction
    • patient is asked to provide a narrative story of what's going on in the scene on the card
    • scoring is subjective and involves looking for common themes that run through patient's stories
  • characteristic ways of addressing conflict, authority, sexuality, etc, lead to hypotheses about underlying motives, concerns, and how patient views social world


summarize psychological testing

-measure of reliability and validity

-types of psychological tests