LEC33: Reproductive Tract I Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC33: Reproductive Tract I > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC33: Reproductive Tract I Deck (65):
1

what directs gonad development

genotype

2

what directs external genitalia development

presence of external genitalia

3

cause of discordance re: gonads, phenotype

mutations- cause gonadal development and phenotype to be discordant

4

2 phases of development

embryonic development of sex organs, secondary sexual development (happens at puberty)

5

embryonic development of sex organs includes

gonads (testes, ovaries), genital ducts, accessory glands

6

layer of embryonic tissue > reproductive organs

intermediate mesoderm

7

basis of primordial germ cells

endodermally-derived yolk sac

8

what/when is indifferent gonads period

male/female gonads, genitalia are identical
5-7 weeks

9

when primoridal germ cells migrate

Begins week 4 done by week 6
takes 2 weeks
during indifferent gonads pd

10

what is genital ridge

thickening of medial side of mesonephros

during indifferent gonads pd, primoridal germ cells migrate from yolk sac, along dorsal mesentery, to genital ridge, to primary sex cords

11

when/where primordial germ cells migrate

week 4, along dorsal mesentery

12

when primordial germ cells incorporated into primary sex cords

week 6

13

in what structure first see cortex/medulla differentiation?

primary sex cords (weeks 5-7)

14

cortex/medulla degree of importance to female/male devel?

importance:
cortex-female
medulla: male

15

what does male phenotype require?

short arm of Y chromosome, with SRY gene

16

SRY gene

sex region gene on short arm of Y chromosome; produces testis determining factor (TDF) which directs development of testes

17

physiologically typical female development requires

2 XX chromosomes

18

what determines ovary production?

absence of Y chromosome

19

what determines primary female sexual differentiation

no production of testosterone

20

TDF

testis determining factor, produced by SRY gene expression on short arm of Y chromosome; determines testes development

21

when testes develop

week 8

22

seminiferous cords

coiled up, anastomosed primary sex cords
in medulla of gonad

23

rete testis

From primary sex cords
anastomosing network of tubules in hilum of testicle
connects to ductal system
leads to efferent ductules / mesonephric tubules

24

what separates seminiferous tubules

mesenchyme

25

seminiferous tubules- hollow or solid?

solid til puberty, then hollow

26

what is in wall of seminiferous tubule

interstitial cell of leydig, sertoli cells, spermatogonia

27

tunica albuginiea

thick structures separating surface epithelium from inner rete testis; not present in ovaries

28

what do interstitial cells of leydig do

secrete testosterone, lead to differentiation of mesonephric ducts and external genitalia

29

sertoli cells

in wall of developing testis; secretes AMH (antimullerian hormone), aka mullerian inhibiting substance, SUPPRESSES development of perimesonephric duct system > male!

30

what do primary sex cords become in females

rete ovarii, which regress

31

cortical cords

secondary sex cords in females; incorporate germ cells, become cortical cords

32

primordial follice surrounding oogonium formed by

cortical cords and germ cell

33

what do ovaries (and testes) develop from

mesonephros

34

how many follicles at birth of female

2 million

35

does woman form any oogonia after birth

no

36

mesonephric ducts

become male genital ducts and glands,
aka wolffian ducts

37

paramesonephric ducts

become female genital ducts and glands,
aka mullerian ducts

38

what leads to mesonephric duct development

AMH from sertoli cells + testosterone from insterstitial cells of leydig

39

progression of male genital duct development

mesonephric ducts > efferent ductules, ductus epididymis, ductus deferens

40

seminal vesicle location, function

outgrowth of ductal system
produces fluid that nourishes sperm; makes vagina more ALKALINE, helps sperm motility

41

ejaculatory duct connects

seminal vesicle to vas deferens

42

prostate develops from

endodermal outgrowths and surrounding mesenchyme from urethra; surrounds urethra

43

prostate function

produces fluid that comprises first part of sperm ejaculate, fluid is released into the urethra, and alkalinizes the vagina

44

how is prostatic fluid produced?

produced via muscular contractions of prostate

45

bulbourethral glands

outgrowth of spongy urethra
secretions contribute to semen

46

what allows female genital duct development

1) absence of testosterone > mesoneprhic ducts regress
2) absence of sertoli cells' MIS > paramesoneprhic ducts can invaginate, develop

47

how paramesonephric ducts develop

invaginations on lateral mesonephroi

48

where is uterovaginal primordium

fused part of paramesonephric ducts, in pelvic region
becomes uterus, vagina

49

paramesonephric ducts location re: pelvic region

paramesonephric ducts pass caudally

50

fallopian tubes form where

unfused portion at top of paramesonephric ducts

51

what suspends ovary in ducts

mesovarian and broad ligament

52

what is vagina primordium, where does it form

at mullerian/sinus tubercle
forms by uterovaginal primordium growing into/meeting urogenital sinus

53

broad ligament forms from

fold in peritoneum
connects ovary, uterus, uterine tube

54

sinovaginal bulbs form from

paired endodermal outgrowths from sinus tubercle

55

what forms vaginal plate

fusion of sinovaginal bulbs
begins as solid > center breaks down > hymen separates lumen of cavity from urogenital sinus

56

what does hymen separate

lumen of sinovaginal bulbs' fusion from cavity of urogenital sinus

57

location and function, urethral and paraurethral (skene's) glands

from urethra
add lubrication to the vagina

58

location and function, bartholion's glands

aka greater vestibular gland
auxiliary genital gland in females
forms from urogenital sinus
can become infected w/ gonorrhea, form abcess/cyst

59

homologues of outgrowths from the urethra

female: urethral and paraurethral (skene's) glands
male: prostate

60

homologues of outgrowths from urogenital sinus

female: greater vestibular glands of Bartholin
male: Bulbourethral glands

61

lasting derivatives of mesonephric tubules

male: efferent ductules
female: none

62

lasting derivatives of mesonephric ducts

males: duct of epididymus, ductus deferens
females: none

63

lasting derivatives of paramesonephric ducts

males: none
females: uterus, tubes

64

lasting derivatives of urogenital sinus

males: bladder, urethra, prostate, bulbourethral glands
females: bladder, urethra, vagina, paraurethral gland, bartholins glands

65

vestigial structures of sinus tubercle

male: seminal colliculus
female: hymen