LEC65: Our Ears Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC65: Our Ears > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC65: Our Ears Deck (68):
1

greek, latin, olde english, pinna for ear?

greek: oto (otic) 

latin: auris (auricular)

olde english: eare 

pinna: from latin, feather, wing, fin

2

identify the temporal bone

 

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3

parts of the temporal bone?

squamosal

zygomatic

mastoid

tympanic

 

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4

what is within temporal bone?

sensory organs for balance and hearing

5

what connects to styloid process of temporal bone?

stylyhyoid ligament 

stylomandibular ligament

styloglossus m (XII) 

stylohyoid m (VII)

stylopharyngeus m (IX)

6

what is different about a baby's temporal bone?

no mastoid process - it's a developmental feature

7

where does internal acoustic meatus open?

into petrous part of temporal bone

8

which region of skull is temporal bone in?

middle cranial fossa

9

what is within the mastoid process here? 

 

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mastoid air cells 

neumatized bone in the mastoid process 

bone lessens with aging there - normal - air circulates. but can have infection spread here. 

 

10

what provides sensory innervation to inner ear canal? nerve and fiber type

what other nerves do you find in the inner ear canal?

GSA of CN VII, facial n

also see vestibular nerve, cochlear nerve - balance

11

if facial nerve is knocked out when exits internal acoustic meatus, what is lost?

all function of VII

12

if VII is knocked out distal to greater petrosal nerve, what remains / is lost?

retain lacrimal gland GVE 

lose sublingual/submandibular gland GVE 

lose taste to anterior 2/3 tongue SVA

lose facial expression SVE

13

if VII is knocked out distal to chorda tympani, what is retained/lost?

retain: 

lacrimal GVE (greater petrosal n)

sensation of inner ear GSA (n to stapedius)

taste to anterior 2/3 tongue SVA submandibular, sublingual glands' GVE (chorda tympani)

lose: 

facial expression SVE 

14

sensory ganglion of facial n?

geniculate ganglion

15

where do motor branches of facial n traverse?

across parotid gland

then span out, do mm of facial expression

16

what are our 6 ears?

external, middle, inner on each side of the head

17

boundaries of each part of ear?

external: pinna - canal - tympanic membrane 

middle: tympanic membrane - oval window 

inner: deep w/in crevices of petrous

18

parts of external ear?

1) auricle aka pinna - what we see on outside

2) external acoustic meatus - external ear canal, leads to tympanic membrane

19

ID: helix, anti-helix, tragus, concha, pinna 

 

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20

first arch syndrome re: ear? what might result? 

poor developed meckel's cartilage 

poorly developed pinna

mandible underdeveloped

21

functions of external ear?

capture, direct, amplify sound 

dissipate heat 

communicate / mood signaling

22

what provides auricular sensation?

V - auriculotemporal branch 

VII - posteiror canal wall 

IX - medial, inner part of tympanic membrane (via tympanic n)

X - most of ear canal, part of outer surface of tympanic membrane (auricular br)

C2, C3 - greater auricular n

C2 - lesser occipital n

23

where is sexual stimulation on ear? sexual suppression? 

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24

what causes cauliflower ear?

blows, damage that separate cartilage of pinna from surrounding tissue 

tissue fills with fluid so difficult for blood or other serous fluid to escape

25

wax function in ears?

catches things coming in

works w/ sebaceous gland, keeps tympanic membrane moist, lubricated

26

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hairs sticking in to sebaceous glands 

ceruminous glands v important to give moistening

27

what is otitis externa

common, inflammation with external ear

28

why might you cough when inserting something into the ear?

because major innervation is from a branch of X, vagus 

this is vagal response 

29

what is otomorphology

study of the appearnce of the external ear 

every person's is different

can be used as a fingerprint substitute

30

where is middle ear? what is its main property?

air-filled space 

from tympanicmembrane laterally to lateral wall of inner ear medially 

communicates w/ mastoid air cells & pharyngotympanic (eustachian) tube

31

identify: pinna, ear canal, eardrum, middle ear, inner ear, eustachian tube 

 

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32

ossicles of middle ear?

malleus

incus

stapes 

33

what is tympanic membrane a remnant of?

pharyngeal pouch of 1st branchial arch

34

identify chorda tympani, incus, handle of malleus 

 

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35

identify malleus 

 

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36

what is the difference

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37

what is otitis media

build up of pressure in the middle ear, causes ear infection

very painful

38

what might chronic otitis media cause?

tear in the tympanic membrane (ear drum) 

may effect malleus, may effect entire hearing mechanism, may have scaring on tympanic membrane

39

muscles of inner ear, their innervation, branchial arch derivation, function?

1) tensor tympani - V - arch 1 - dampen sounds, such as those produced from chewing

2) stapedius - VII - arch 2 - stabilize the stapes

40

how does sound move from outside > inside?

sound through ear canal > hits tympanic membrane

tympanic membrane vibrates, virbation > malleus 

malleus passes vibration to incus, passes virbation to stapes > voal window 

> inner ear fluids

41

what is smallest bone in human body?

stapes!

42

branchial arch of upper portion of malleus and incus?

branchial arch I

43

branchial arch of lower part of malleus and incus?

branchial arch II

44

branchial arch of arcus of stapes?

arch II

45

nerve of branchial arch II?

chorda tympani

46

what are the joints between the ossicles called? what type of joints?

synovial joints: 

1) incudomaller (malleus-incus)

2) incudostapedeal (incus-stapes)

47

what is otosclerosis? what's result?

if footplate of stapes becomes fused to oval window

lose hearing

48

what part of eustachian tube enters middle ear? 

bony portion of eustachian tube > middle ear, at nasopharynx, at rear of nasal cavity

49

components of eustachian tube?

bony and cartilagenous portions

50

function of eustachian tube?

does aeration- equilibration of pressure in middle ear 

 

51

describe difference between child/adult eustachian tube

child's tube is horizontal, so children get infection easily 

adults have more vertical tubes, so less likely to get otisis media

52

most common childhood ailment in the US?

middle ear disease, otitis media

53

areas of inner ear?

1) bony cavities (bony labyrinth) 

2) membranous ducts & sacs (membranous labyrinth)

 

54

what does bony labyrinth contain?

vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea 

cavities lined w/ periosteum, contain perilymph

55

what does membranous labyrinth contain?

semicircular ducts, cochlear duct, utricle, saccule 

spaces lined w/ endolymph

56

where is inner ear lodged?

deep within petrous bone

57

interaction btwn oval and round windows?

foot of stapes pushe in on oval window > helps push fluid around 

round window pushes out, opposes action

58

functional elements of inner ear?

hair cells

59

what is on top of hair cells of inner ear? fxn?

stereocilia

highly sensitive, so pick up pressurs and convey info back to brain 

have these in semicircular canal, cochlea

60

how many semicircular canals?

3 on each side of head

61

types of hearing loss

1) conductive hearing loss

2) sensorineural hearing loss

62

what is conductive hearing loss caused by, how does it present?

caused by piercing, related activities 

failure in efficient conduction of sound waves thru outer ear, tympanic membrane, or middle ear

63

what is sensorineural hearing loss caused by, what does it damage?

caused by damage to hair cells - ie rock concerts - or diseas or brain trauma

damages: cochlear n, inner ear hair cells, and/or brain

64

nerves > inner ear?

VII, facial 

VIII, vestibulocochlear

65

presbycusis?

major presentaiton of sensorineural hearing loss

age-related hearing loss

extremely common

66

how do cochlear implants work?

insert into cochlea

stimulates damaged hair cells > stimulates back to nerves 

67

vestibular system diseases examples? what do we know about them?

balance disorder such as meniere's disease, labyrinthitis, vertigo

know fluid compositions in perilymph and endolymph are problematic but don't understand disease process

68

what is our oldest evolutionary sense?

balance