LEC38: Musculoskeletal system Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC38: Musculoskeletal system > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC38: Musculoskeletal system Deck (36):
1

3 parts of musculoskeletal system

1) osteology, bones
2) myology, muscles
3) arthrology, joints

2

2 types of joints

1) fibrous, cartilaginous
2) synovial - diarthroses

3

fibrous joints

synarthrosis
eg suture, gomphosis, syndesmosis, schindylesis

4

cartilaginous joints

amphiarthrosis
eg symphysis, synchondrosis

5

synovial joints divided by

shape
eg ball and socket, hinge

6

suture

skull joint

7

gomphosis

peg and socket joint between tooth, mandible of gum

8

syndesmosis

fibrous connection between bones
no capsules, no movement
ie distal part of tibia-fibula

9

shindylesis

bone wedged into a groove
ie vomer bone in head, looks like plowshare

10

synchondrosis

joint with bone-cartilage-bone
cartilage of syncondrosis ossifies eventually > bone only in joint, timing of this v. important

1) long bones
2) bottom of skull

11

intervertebral disc join type

symphysis

12

pubic symphysis

between 2 pubic bones
matters a lot for childbirth, allows baby exit

13

characteristics of synovial joints

presence of synovial fluid; capsules, ligaments, often menisci

14

what is between male and female surface of synovial joint

articular cartilage

15

examples of synovial joints with fibrocartilage

menisci in knee
labrum in shoulder, hip

helps articulatory efficiency of joint

16

type of joints between ear bones

synovial

17

problems that can occur with synovial joints

1) muscle atrophy
2) bone remodeling, sclerosis
3) cartilage break down
4) meniscal damage
5) synovial hypertrophy
6) osteophytes
7) ligament dysfunction
8) altered fat metabolism

18

classic name for big toe

hallux

19

animals that swing through trees via arms

brachiators

20

lower extremity consists of

thigh + leg + foot

21

thigh

hip to knee

22

leg

knee to ankle

23

what supports humans' ability to stand erect

have hyper extended knee; tight ligamentous structures support us, rather than muscles, which are energetically expensive to use

24

sesimoid bone

a bone that doesn't directly articulate with other bones; is formed in tendons of muscles

25

patella

knee bone

26

knee ligaments

ACL, PCL, collateral ligaments, menisci

27

menisci

fibrocartinagenous structures in joints

28

unhappy triad of the knee

MCL, ACL, medial meniscus all torn together when hit knee is hit from lateral side

29

foot arches, function

longitudinal and transverse
dissipate force on foot

30

important foot muscles

tibialis posterior, tibialis anterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hullucis longus

31

how are foot arches supported at resting state

by bony and ligamentous support of the foot itself, & muscles are at rest

32

epiphyseal plate

growth plate of long bone, grows over time; between epiphysis and metaphysis, diaphysis

33

epiphysis

rounded end of long bone, covered with articular cartilage, just above growth plate

34

parts of growth plate

resting zone, proliferating zone, hypertrophic zone

35

why contact sports dangerous for children

can fracture across growth plate

36

stages of life when have bone growth/loss?

active growth: birth-30
slow loss: 30-40
rapid loss: 50-60
less rapid loss: 60+