Flashcards in LEC40: Lower Extremity Osteology 101 Deck (78):
what comes out of holes in sacrum?
what covers opterator foramen?
what goes through opterator foramen? Where do these structures go?
opterator nerve, artery, vein; to medial portion of thigh
how many large plexises of body?
2: lumbosacral, brachial
1 cocxal bone; 2 oss cocxae, sacrum, coccyx
what kind of joint is sacro-ileac joint?
bones of the pelvis?
large ilium, sacrum, pubis, ischium
what do we sit on?
ischium, on ischial tuberosity
where does femur articular with pelvis?
acetabular fossa - synovial joint
what 3 bones fuse in acetabulum?
ilium, pubis, ischium
whose acetabular fossa is shallower- newborn or adult?
newborn - so dangerous to straight baby and slam butt, b/c can dislocate the hip
what is the biggest bone in the body?
technical name of hip joint?
technical name of knee joint?
what articulates with acetabulofemoral fossa?
head of femur
proximal vs distal femur?
proximal- at acetabulofemoral joint; ditasl- at genual joint
features of head of femur
greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, trochanteric crest, head, fovea capitis, neck, pectineal line, linea aspera
features of distal femur
lateral epicondyle, medial epicondyle, patellar surface, intercondylar fossa, lateral condyle
what connects to lesser trochanter of femur?
ONLY the ileopsoas m.
what is the linea aspera?
surface on posterior portion of femur where adductor muscles attach
why so dangerous to break hip?
get avascular necrosis - lots of blood
what are swellings on long bones called?
what part of leg articulates w/ femur?
proximal portion of tibia's tibial tuberoscity
structures of patella
patellar surface; medial groove; lateral groove; lateral epicondyl; medial epicondyle; semilunar area; lateral condyle; medial condyle
what is the largest sesamoid bone in the body?
what are sesamoids
bones in the tendons of muscles
leverage for quadriceps muscles in thigh; extending knee joint
latin for leg?
"crus" pl: "crura"
why are compartments significant?
1) functionality, 2) clinically don't want to spread problems across compartments
bones of the leg
which aspect of leg is tibia on?
word for fibular side of leg?
"peron" or "peroneal"
which leg bone is weight-bearing?
what/where is fabella?
sesamoid bone at distal part of femur, proximal part of tibia
what connects tibia-fibula?
types of joint(s) between tibia-fibula?
what are melleilei?
"big hammer" swellings at distal end of tibia/fibula, important for leverage
term to describe muscles within a part of the extremity?
term to describe muscles that go across parts of extremity?
what do extrinsic leg muscles do?
put tendons onto the foot
tendons that go from leg > foot?
tibialis anterior; tibialis posterior; flexor digitorum longus; flexor hullucis longus
major categories of foot bones
tarsals > metatarsals > phalanges
what type of structure is the foot?
osteoligamentous - based upon its bones
where is dorsum of the foot?
top of the foot
where is plantar surface of the foot?
bottom fo the foot
what is unique about plantar surface of foot's skin?
some of thickest, most sensitive skin of the body; only connection between human & earth
how many bones in tarsus?
foot bone for ankle joint?
bones of tarsus?
calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, 3 cuneiform (medial, intermediate, lateral)
hand counterpart to tarsal bones?
technical name for big toe?
where does achilles tendon attach?
to calcaneous bone
aka tendo-calcaneous tendon
swelling of bursa under where achilles tendon connects calf muscles (gastrocnemius + soleus) to calcaneus (heel bone)
how many carpal bones of hand?
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum pisiform, hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium
1) internal (medial) longitudinal arch 2) transverse (anterior) arch 3) external (lateral) longitudinal arch
technical name for limb falling asleep
what nerve do skiiers commonly damage?
common fibular / common peroneal nerve
plantar-calcaneo-navicular ligament of plantar surface of foot; stretches btwn navicular-calcaneous bones; supports talus bone; supports arch; if damaged, talus falls > flat feet
technical name for flat feet
why do people with flat feet experience fatigue?
leg muscles work to elevate the foot's arch, so constantly fatigued, even if just standing
technical name for foot binding
result of foot binding
what does running on pavement cause
microfractures throughout tibia; potentially alters hormonal systems
can foot's articular cartilage regenerate?
what is tarsal tunnel
narrow areas/areas of constriction in extremeties within which nerves, vessels go
what can happen in tarsal tunnel
binding; binds down muscles, nerves that come underneath it; have one on medial side of leg, binds Tom, Dick, Harry, and distal branches of tibial n. and arteries
what happens if tarsal tunnel gets compressed?
distal part of foot loses sensation
how many phalanges per toe?
3: proximal, middle, distal; hallox has only 2: proximal, distal
what lie underneath the hallox?
how many of each type of foot bone in each foot?
7 tarsal, 5 metatarsal, 5 phalanges
movements of ankle joint?
4: plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, eversion
movements of knee joint?