LEC40: Lower Extremity Osteology 101 Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC40: Lower Extremity Osteology 101 > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC40: Lower Extremity Osteology 101 Deck (78):
1

"pelvis" means?

basin

2

what comes out of holes in sacrum?

rami

3

what covers opterator foramen?

fascia, muscles

4

what goes through opterator foramen? Where do these structures go?

opterator nerve, artery, vein; to medial portion of thigh

5

how many large plexises of body?

2: lumbosacral, brachial

6

pelvic bones?

1 cocxal bone; 2 oss cocxae, sacrum, coccyx

7

what kind of joint is sacro-ileac joint?

synovial

8

bones of the pelvis?

large ilium, sacrum, pubis, ischium

9

what do we sit on?

ischium, on ischial tuberosity

10

where does femur articular with pelvis?

acetabular fossa - synovial joint

11

what 3 bones fuse in acetabulum?

ilium, pubis, ischium

12

whose acetabular fossa is shallower- newborn or adult?

newborn - so dangerous to straight baby and slam butt, b/c can dislocate the hip

13

what is the biggest bone in the body?

femur

14

technical name of hip joint?

acetabulofemoral joint

15

technical name of knee joint?

genual joint

16

what articulates with acetabulofemoral fossa?

head of femur

17

proximal vs distal femur?

proximal- at acetabulofemoral joint; ditasl- at genual joint

18

features of head of femur

greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, trochanteric crest, head, fovea capitis, neck, pectineal line, linea aspera

19

features of distal femur

lateral epicondyle, medial epicondyle, patellar surface, intercondylar fossa, lateral condyle

20

what connects to lesser trochanter of femur?

ONLY the ileopsoas m.

21

what is the linea aspera?

surface on posterior portion of femur where adductor muscles attach

22

why so dangerous to break hip?

get avascular necrosis - lots of blood

23

what are swellings on long bones called?

condyles

24

what part of leg articulates w/ femur?

proximal portion of tibia's tibial tuberoscity

25

structures of patella

patellar surface; medial groove; lateral groove; lateral epicondyl; medial epicondyle; semilunar area; lateral condyle; medial condyle

26

what is the largest sesamoid bone in the body?

patella

27

"sesamoid" means?

"seed"

28

what are sesamoids

bones in the tendons of muscles

29

patella function?

leverage for quadriceps muscles in thigh; extending knee joint

30

latin for leg?

"crus" pl: "crura"

31

why are compartments significant?

1) functionality, 2) clinically don't want to spread problems across compartments

32

bones of the leg

tibia, fibula

33

which aspect of leg is tibia on?

medial

34

word for fibular side of leg?

"peron" or "peroneal"

35

which leg bone is weight-bearing?

tibia

36

what/where is fabella?

sesamoid bone at distal part of femur, proximal part of tibia

37

what connects tibia-fibula?

ligaments

38

types of joint(s) between tibia-fibula?

synovial, syndesmosis

39

what are melleilei?

"big hammer" swellings at distal end of tibia/fibula, important for leverage

40

term to describe muscles within a part of the extremity?

intrinsic

41

term to describe muscles that go across parts of extremity?

extrinsic

42

what do extrinsic leg muscles do?

put tendons onto the foot

43

tendons that go from leg > foot?

tibialis anterior; tibialis posterior; flexor digitorum longus; flexor hullucis longus

44

major categories of foot bones

tarsals > metatarsals > phalanges

45

what type of structure is the foot?

osteoligamentous - based upon its bones

46

"tarsus" means

"flat"

47

where is dorsum of the foot?

top of the foot

48

where is plantar surface of the foot?

bottom fo the foot

49

what is unique about plantar surface of foot's skin?

some of thickest, most sensitive skin of the body; only connection between human & earth

50

how many bones in tarsus?

7

51

foot bone for ankle joint?

talus

52

bones of tarsus?

calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, 3 cuneiform (medial, intermediate, lateral)

53

hand counterpart to tarsal bones?

carpal bones

54

technical name for big toe?

hallox

55

where does achilles tendon attach?

to calcaneous bone
aka tendo-calcaneous tendon

56

tendo-calcaneal bursitis

swelling of bursa under where achilles tendon connects calf muscles (gastrocnemius + soleus) to calcaneus (heel bone)

57

how many carpal bones of hand?

8

58

hand bones

scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum pisiform, hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium

59

foot arches

1) internal (medial) longitudinal arch 2) transverse (anterior) arch 3) external (lateral) longitudinal arch

60

technical name for limb falling asleep

parasthesia

61

what nerve do skiiers commonly damage?

common fibular / common peroneal nerve

62

spring ligament

plantar-calcaneo-navicular ligament of plantar surface of foot; stretches btwn navicular-calcaneous bones; supports talus bone; supports arch; if damaged, talus falls > flat feet

63

technical name for flat feet

pes planus

64

why do people with flat feet experience fatigue?

leg muscles work to elevate the foot's arch, so constantly fatigued, even if just standing

65

technical name for foot binding

pes cavus

66

result of foot binding

heightened arch

67

what does running on pavement cause

microfractures throughout tibia; potentially alters hormonal systems

68

can foot's articular cartilage regenerate?

no

69

what is tarsal tunnel

narrow areas/areas of constriction in extremeties within which nerves, vessels go

70

what can happen in tarsal tunnel

entrapment neuropathy

71

retinaculum function

binding; binds down muscles, nerves that come underneath it; have one on medial side of leg, binds Tom, Dick, Harry, and distal branches of tibial n. and arteries

72

what happens if tarsal tunnel gets compressed?

distal part of foot loses sensation

73

how many phalanges per toe?

3: proximal, middle, distal; hallox has only 2: proximal, distal

74

what lie underneath the hallox?

sesamoid bones

75

how many of each type of foot bone in each foot?

7 tarsal, 5 metatarsal, 5 phalanges

76

movements of ankle joint?

4: plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, eversion

77

movements of knee joint?

extend, flex

78

movements of hip joint?

6: circumduction, abduct, adduct, flex, extend, medially and laterally rotate