LEC37: Microstructure of the Female Reproductive Tract Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC37: Microstructure of the Female Reproductive Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC37: Microstructure of the Female Reproductive Tract Deck (129):
1

functions of female reproductive system

1) produce ova thru oogenesis
2) facilitate, transport germ cells & spermatozoa to increase chances of fertilization
3) maintain implanted embryos through gestation
4) nurture infants postnatally thru lactation

2

what controls female reproductive system functions

hormal and nervous system mechanisms

3

components of female reproductive system

1) ovaries
2) uterine tubes (oviducts)
3) uterus (myometrium, endometrium, cervix)
4) vagina
5) external genitalia
6) mammary glands
7) placenta

4

what attaches ovary-uterus

ovarian ligament, mesovarium attaches ovary to broad ligaments of uterus

5

where does fertilization occur

by ampulla-isthmus border of fallopian tube

6

another name for body of uterus

corpus

7

what collects released oocyte

fimbriae of uterine tube

8

what is at the lower end of the birth canal

vagina

9

what is ovary covered with

simple cuboidal epithelium that's continuous w/ mesothelial lining of peritoneal cavity

10

where are germ cells released

directly into peritoneal cavity

11

what does oviduct connect to

attached to broad ligaments of uterus

12

how does oocyte > uterus

peristaltic contractions of muscle coat surrounding oviducts

13

where is uterus

medially in pelvic cavity

14

uterus-vagina connection is what

uterine ostium

15

which part of vagina opens into uterus

upper end of vagina

16

what is vagina latin for

sheath

17

vagina walls made of

muscle

18

what is lower end of birth canal

vagina

19

cell type in folds of vagina

stratified squamous epithelium

20

when does oogenesis begin

during prenatal life

21

what happens during fetal life re: oogonia?

oogonia > 1o oocyte, meiosis I begins, suspends in prophase

22

when do 1o oocytes complete meiosis I and what are products

1o oocyte suspended until ovulation as a 2o oocyte after puberty; occurs on an individual basis; produces 2o oocyte and 1st polar body

23

how long might a 1o oocyte remain suspended in prophase

45-50 years
a reason for trisomy 21 with increased maternal age

24

when does 2o oocyte complete 2nd meiotic division

after fertilization; 2o oocyte splits into ovum & 2nd polar body

25

ovarian ligament

connects ovary-lateral surface of uterus

26

cortex of ovary

area with follicles, corpus luteum, and stroma

27

medulla of ovary contains

blood vessels

28

how many 1o oocytes at birth?

2 million

29

how many 1o oocytes at puberty?

400,000

30

what stimulates 2o follicle production

cyclic FSH secretion by anterior pituitary

31

what supports full reproductive function?

estrogen produced from developing follicles

32

how many primoridial follicles stimulated to develop each month?

20-50

33

what was thought to give rise to germ cells & where do they actually arise from?

germinal epithelium, now know it's yolk sac

34

what is tunica albuginea

connective tissue covering of the ovaries
parallel to germinal epithelium lining the ovary

35

follicular development stages

1) primordial follicle
2) early primary follicle
3) late primary follicle
4) secondary follicle
5) mature graafian follicle

36

primordial follicle characteristics

oocyte is nucleated; nucleolus within nucleus; flattened follicular cells; stroma cells irregular, scattered around follicle

37

what effect do follicular cells have on 1o oocyte?

arrest it in prophase of meiosis I

38

when do granulosa cells appear/what do they replace

early primary follicle; are cuboidal shaped; replace flattened follicular cells

39

when does zona pellucida form for first time

late primary follicle

40

how are cells in late primary follicle

organized; matters because stroma becomes the theca

41

when does antrum of follicle appear during oogenesis

secondary follicle, when granulosa cells loosen and form pockets of space

42

when does theca become organized

secondary follicle

43

what is diff between theca interna and externa

theca interna: cellular rich, produces steroids, clear cytoplasm
theca externa: fibrous rich arrangement

44

characteristics of oocyte in mature graafian follicle

oocyte located to one side - excentrically located; surrounded with granulosa cells, corona radiata, antrum enlarged

45

when during fetal development does 1o follicle develop by

7th month
this encapsulation arrests the 1st meiotic division; no further development until sexual maturity

46

primary follicle cells are

cuboidal granulosa cells

47

proteins of the zona pellucida

glycoprotein & acid proteoglycans ZP1, ZP2, ZP3

48

what contributes to zona pellucida formation

both the granulosa cells & oocyte

49

what is liquid within the antrum called, what does it contain

liquor folliculi, FSH and estrogen

50

what are antrum nutrients

steroids, pituitary hormones, local growth factors

51

cumulus oophorus

cluster of cells surrounding oocyte in ovarian follicle and after ovulation; innermost layer of these cells is corona radiata

52

hormonal action on graafian follicle

LH increase interacts w/ receptors on granulosa and theca cells

53

what happens to granulsoa cells in graafian follicle

depolymerization of mucopolysaccharides in antrum fluid and increase in colloid osmotic pressure > granulosa cells less adhesive, cumulus loosens

54

what is the stigma

specific site on ovary surface where follicular wall breaks down; get decreased blood flow, thinning, depolymerization of CT

55

where is plasminogen activator from, what is its significance?

LH stimulates granulosa cells of graafian follicle to produce plasminogen activator; it cleaves plasminogen to plasmin, acts on follicle wall, causing rupture > 2o oocyte extruded with corona radiata of granulosa cells

56

what is extruded/where to at ovulation

2o oocyte, zona pellucida, corona radiata, into peritoneal cavity

57

how is estrogen produced

theca interna cells produce estrogen precursor; granulosa cells of theca externa convert it to estrogen

58

hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis - how it works

hypothal. produces GnRH > acts on pituitary, produces FSH > acts on developing follicles > when enough estrogen from follicles, positive feedback to produce LH & negative feedback to hypothalamus > ovulation occurs as production of LH increases

59

what hormones act on the corpus luteum of pregnancy

estrogen and progesterone

60

what does LH due after ovulation

causes granulosa cells to become granulosa lutein cells and theca interna cells to become theca lutein cells aka corpus luteum

61

what is in early corpus luteum

blood clot from ruptured follicle that released the 2o oocyte

62

what is corpus albicans

an involuted corpus luteum because not fertilized

63

what does corpus luteum of pregnancy secrete, why

progesterone and estrogen to prepare endometrial lining for implantation

64

if no fertilization, what happens to corpus luteum

corpus luteum involutes, becomes large corpus albicans, which disappears after 14 days

65

what does placenta do re: corpus luteum

eventually takes over estrogen and progesterone production

66

what are 2 cell types of corpus luteum, what do they produce

granulosa lutein cells: produce progesterone
theca lutein cells: produce estrogen precursor

67

what is corpus albicans made of

inactive fibrous tissue mass; any remaining cells eaten by macrophages

68

how many follicles reach maturity

300-400 over 30 yrs reproductive life

69

what is atretic follicle

dying follicles, wehreby zona pellucide folds up on itself
occurs anytime- birth, puberty, pregnancy

70

estrogens functions

1) promotive development/maintenance of female reproductive structures, feminine 2o sex characteristics, breasts
2) increase protein anabolism
3) lower blood cholesterol
4) moderate levels inhibit release of GnRH, FSH, LH

71

progesterone functions

1) works with estrogens to prepare endometrium for implantation
2) prepares breasts to secrete milk
3) inhibits release of GnRH, LH

72

relaxin functions

1) inhibits contractions of uterine smooth muscle
2) during labor, relaxes pubic symphysis, dilates uterine cervix

73

inhibit functions

inhibits release of FSH and (lesser but also) LH

74

what initially secretes estrogens

growing ovarian follicles

75

what ultimately secretes estrogen, also progesterone, inhibin

developed follicle

76

what secretes progesterone, estrogens, relaxin, inhibin once developed oocyte

corpus luteum

77

when blastocyst implants, what reaches up into endometrium

cytotrophoblasts > synciotrophoblasts

78

main functions of oviduct

1) transport germ cells
2) capacitation of sperm, fertilization of 2o oocyte
3) transport of zygote

79

how long does it take sperm to get to distal end of oviduct

5 minutes after ejaculation

80

how many sperm enter the vagina vs how many reach oviduct

250 million enter, 50 or less reach oviduct

81

what is faster- sperm or oocyte transport?

sperm

82

what is the shape of the uterine lumen

tortuous
reason for why might be difficult for sperm to reach oviduct

83

structure of ampulla

muscle outside, mucousal folds project into lumen = mucus membrane w/ epithelium, lamina propria

84

what type of cells on surface of ampulla

columnar

85

cell type in oviduct

1) simple columnar ciliated epithelium - aids sperm transport up through isthmus
2) nonciliated secretory cells

86

how long is mature uterus

7 cm

87

what is structure of canal of the certix?

endocervix- area between internal os, external os
ectocervix- area outside external os, communicates w/ vagina

88

what is sloughed off during menstruation

material from endometrial glands in uterus

89

layers of uterus

endometrium (glandular), myometrium (muscle)

90

cell type- surface epithelium of endometrium?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar, some cells w/ microvilli

91

what is endometrium composed of

glandular mucousal part of uterus
stratum functionalis, which has stratum compactum and stratum spongiosum, + stratum basalis

92

muscle type/number of layers in myometrium

3 layers of smooth muscle

93

stratum vasculare

middle layer of myometrium, has large blood vessels

94

functional layer of endometrium

stratum functionalis
shed during menstruation every month

95

basalar layer of endometrium

stratum basalis
retained, regenerates functional layer every month

96

what controls uterine cycle

estrogen, progesterone

97

phases of uterine cycle

1) menstrual phase: 4-5 days
2) proliferative phase: 6-14 days
3) secretory phase
4) ischemic phase
5) menstrual phase

98

what happens during proliferative phase

endometrium regenerates, 2x-3x thickness, under estrogen control produced by maturing ovarian follicles

99

what happens during secretory phase

endometrium thickens, under progesterone and estrogen influence produced by corpus luteum

100

what happens during ischemic phase

if no fertilization
caused by decline in corpus luteum and drop in hormones

101

what happens during menstrual phase

functional layer undergoes episodes of hypoxia, b/c interruption of blood supply

102

what happens to blood vessels, stroma, glands as endometrium proliferates?

blood vessels grow, stroma grows, glands become like little corkscrews for secretion

103

what marks onset of secretory phase

ovulation

104

what happens to glands over secretory phase

glands visible, glycogen needed for implanted blastocyst nourishment visible, basally located > midsecretion, glycogen moves up gland, apically located > goes to lumen later in phase

105

shape of glands ultimately

late secretory phase, glands = little corkscrews (began as straight)

106

blood supply to uterus

uterine artery > myometrium

107

shape of arteries in endometrium

spiral

108

shape of arteries in stratum basalis

straight

109

what happens to arteries during menstrual cycle

as endometrium proliferates, spiral arteries grow, kink, buckle
when progesterone/estrogen withdrawn, arteries grow and buckle in constrictions, capillaries at surface also buckle, bleeding occurs b/c spiral arteries STRONGER than stromal cells can accommodate

110

what shape are endometrial glands during proliferative phase

straight
estrogen influence

111

what shape are endometrial glands during early secretory phase

little corkscrewes

112

shape of endometrial glands late secretory phase

corkscrew
days 15-28
increased progesterone

113

structure of endocervix

lined w/ simple columnar, mucus-secreting cells

114

how does mucous of endocervix change over cycle

around ovulation, mucus thin/watery, under estrogen control for easy sperm migration (estrogen)
after secretion, fluid viscous, helps lubricate vagina (progesterone)

115

where do most cervical cancers arise, why

95% at squamo-columnar junction or TRANSFORMATION ZONE of the cervix
as age, more of endocervix exposed to acid pH (=5) of vagina, area healed by squamous metaplasia process, this makes cells more susceptible to papilloma virus > cancer

116

structure of vagina

tube, lower end of birth canal
lining: stratified squamous epithelial tissue
no glands, moistened by endocervical mucous
fibroelastic lamina propria
layer of circular smooth muscle
skeletal muscle at vaginal orifice

117

what does vaginal epithelium make

glycogen, in response to estrogen
secretion metabolized by bacteria into lactic acid

118

what is different btwn inactive, active mammary glands

structure of ducts

119

what happens to alveoli from nonpregnant > pregnant > lactating

no lactation: are quiescent, undifferentiated, duct system inactive
pregnant: alveoli grow larger, proliferate at ends of ducts
lactating: fully differentiate, milk secretion abundant

120

what type of cells in mammary glands

myoepithelial cells

121

pregnant woman breast tissue contains

many secretory lobules, under estrogen, progesterone, lactogenic hormone influence

122

what stimulates milk production

suckling sends afferent impulses to hypothalamus; peroventricular neurons cause release of oxytocin, prolactin from axon terminals in pituitary; stimulates milk production and ejection, colostrum, proteins, lactose, vitamins, immunoglobulins

123

what fill with milk in lactating mammary gland

alveoli

124

how are proteins of colostrum/milk secreted

exocytosis - merocrine secretion

125

how are milk lipids secreted

apocrine mechanism - have membrane

126

how is mammary gland during menopause

glandular looking surface with no active glands, lots of CT, no regularity, lots of fat

127

aberrant implantation results in

ectopic pregnnacy

128

PID caused by

pelvic inflammatory disease
chlamydia, gonorrhea

129

what is endometriosis

ectopic occurence of endometrial tissue b/c of retrograde flow of blood, endometrial tissue - bounds bowels of GI system together