LEC51: Labor & Delivery Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC51: Labor & Delivery > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC51: Labor & Delivery Deck (24):
1

defn of childbirth?

process by which fetus, placenta/membranes are expelled form uterus

2

defn of labor

uterine contractions that result in dilation of cervix and expulsion of fetus and placenta

3

what triggers labor?

not totally known

do know interaction btwn fetus, mom matters 

many theories that hormones ie fetal hypothalamus, cortisol from adrenal cortex, estrogens cause labor 

4

structure of uterus, why matters re: labor and birth?

uterus is very muscular structure 

has to contract and thus expel baby and membranes 

5

how does uterus position change over time (from non-pregnant - mid-pregnancy - fullterm)?

non-pregnant: uterus in anteverted position 

~20 weeks: uterus at level of umbilicus 

most pregnant: uterus expands, compresses stomach/intestines

6

relationship between uterus position/weeks of pregnancy? 

1 cm form pubic symphysis > top of uterus per 1 week gestation

7

why do many pregnant women have heartburn?

when uterus compresses stomach, can cause reflux 

acid in stomach can go to esophagus

woman eperiences heartburn

8

myth or fact: if pregnant woman has heartburn baby is hairy

myth

9

oxytocin function/genesis

 

hormone that induces labor

released by neurohypophysis of pituitary gland 

10

estrogens function in labor

increase myometrial contractile activity 

stimulate release of oxytocin & prostaglandins 

 

11

how many stages of labor

3

12

what is 1st stage of labor

onset of labor to full dilation 

12 hrs in nulliparas 

7 hrs in multiparas 

13

what is 2nd stage of labor

from full dilation to delivery 

woman actively PUSHING

50 min in nulliparas

20 min in multiparas

14

what is 3rd stage of labor

expulsion of placenta, after baby's delivered 

~15 minutes 

15

what is this called, when does it occur?

Q image thumb

2nd stage of labor

crowning / delivering of baby's head

16

what is turtle sign

aka shoulder dystocia 

if baby's head comes out, and then goes back in 

obstetrical emergency - extremely dangerous 

can have terrible consequences b/c shoulder can be stuck behind pubic bone

17

complications during 1st stage of labor?

1) arrest of dilation

2) arrest of descent

18

complications of labor/delivery during 2nd stage?

shoulder dystocia - turtle sign

19

complications of labor/delivery during 3rd stage? 

1) retained placenta (placenta doesn't come out)

2) placenta accreta/increta/percreta 

3) uterine inversion 

4) post-partum hemorrhage > lacerations, uterine atony

 

20

what is placenta acreta

if placenta invades abnormally into endometrium; can invade, and not come out

may even reach into myometrium, go through it, invade bladder/adjacent structures 

more common if woman has prior uterine surgery - ie prior c-section

21

what is uterine atony

uterus not well-developed

22

what's notable about fetal heart rate 

110-160 bpm - much faster than adult 

don't want to see decelerations in fetal heart rate

category I = normal tracing of fetal heart beat

23

what is pitocin

synthetic hormone, inducs labor contractions

24

what is episiotomy?

cut perineum between vagina & rectum

helps baby come through w/o mother tearing