when is head the "skull"? the "cranium"?
skull: with mandible
cranium: without mandible
does hyloid directly articulate w/ any other bones?
spinal level of larynx?
muscles extending from hyloid bone?
post and anteiror bellies of digastric m
where do you do a crycothyrotomoy?
between thyroid cartilage & cricoid cartilage
branches of internal carotid in the neck?
it comes from common carotid
NO BRANCHES FROM INTERNAL CAROTID in the neck
big terminal branches of external carotid in neck?
maxillary & superficial temporal aa
external carotid a branches?
superior thyroid a
ascending pharyngeal a
posteiror auricular a
superficial temporal a
*some anatomists like fing, other prefer S&M*
superior thyroid is a branch of what?
& what does it anastomose with?
branch of external carotid a
anastomoses with inferior thyroid a from thyrocervical trunk
important facial veins
external jugular v
internal jugular v
why is popping a zit on the side of your nose dangerous?
important venous drainage system is there
blood from there > facial vein > jugulars or > opthalmic vv > cavernous sinus
muscles of the pharynx
1) superior pharyngeal constrictor
2) middle pharyngeal constrictor
3) inferior pharyngeal constrictor
1-3 are paired; constrict
4-6 are paired; longitudinal; elevate the constrictors when we swallow
constrictor muscles of the pharynx
superior pharyngeal constrictor
middle pharyngeal constrictor
inferior pharyngeal constrictor
which pharyngeal muscles elevate the constrictors
what is true about muscles connecting to styloid bone?
all come from different branchial arches
parts of inferior constrictor m
when is crycopharyngeus m constricted?
always EXCEPT when swallow
pharynx is divided into 3 parts
what's between middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles?
where superior laryngeal nerve, artery, vein enter
where is ear - throat connection? why important
nasopharynx - middle ear cnxn =
(at level of inferior nasal concha)
portal for infection to spread > middle ear
how do constrictors align posteirorly?
meet at cuscible mtg pt in the middle, a raphe
what/where are piriform sinuses
on either side of laryngeal orifice
common place for food to become trapped
layers of pharyngeal wall
from outside to inside:
1) buccopharyngeal fascia
2) muscle layer
3) pharyngobasilar fascia (fibrous layer)
5) mucous membrane
innervation of pharynx
pharyngeal plexus (IX, X, XI) + autonomics
what is larynx derived from?
4th-6th brachial arches
how many/what are cartilages of the larynx?
unpaired: thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
paired: arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform
what structure = adam's apple?
is hyoid bone part of the larynx?
does thyroid cartilage have both front and back?
just front, no back
does cricoid cartilage have both front and back?
small front, large back
what kind of joint between thyroid and cricoid cartilages?
what kind of front/back does trachea have?
solid front, cartilage
where is vocal ligament?
runs from aretenoid > thyroid
why don't you do a crycothyrotomy in trachea where rings are?
because there, risk causing a tracheo-esophageal fistula if puncture both trachea and esophagus
how many parts to upper larynx internal membrane?
quadrangular upper portion, ends in vestibular fold
lower portion, ends in vocal fold
what do vestibular ligament & vocal ligament do
produce vestibular & vocal folds of internal membrane of larynx
where does fluid often fill, esp in elderly ppl?
how do you relate things in the larynx?
relate them to the glottis
identify the vocal fold
where does food go when swallow?
around larynx into esophagus
lamina propria - forms ligament
what is true vocal cord?
= vocal ligament + overlying mucosa
what is false vocal cord?
= vestibular ligament + overlying mucosa
use to visualize epiglottis, back of larynx and its swellings, vocal folds w/ vestibular fold above them
what is rima glottidis
opening btwn true vocal cords & arytenoid cartilages
what do vocal folds control?
1) control air going in/out of our lungs
2) are a protective sphincter
3) are fundamnetal frequencies to produce sounds
4) do maintence of intrathoracic & intraabdominal pressure (ie when constipated, give birth)
what helps you lift weights re: larynx?
how to make self throw up
1) finger touches lips, arouses GSA in trigeminal CN V
2) finger in front of tongue, now more GSA in trigeminal & also taste in chorda tympani of CN VII
3) back of tongue, posterior 1/3, in CN IX - shares 4 brainstem nuclei w/ CN X
4) GAG REFLEX is initiated
5) if went further, touch epiglottis - CN X
so invade center of universe- CN X!
muscles of larynx
posterior cricoarytenoid, cricothyroid
lateral cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid, thyroarytenoid, vocalis
what muscle abducts vocal folds of larynx?
posterior cricoarytenoid m
what is unique about cricothyroid m?
only larynx m not innervated by RLN
innervated in SLN
folds' main job?
swellings of folds causes what?
what muscle is this
posterior crico-arytenoid mm
what muscle is this
what is position of epiglottis when swallow?
inlet muscles of larynx re: epiglottis?
2) oblique artenoid
motor laryngeal innervation?
also exsternal branch of SLN
sensory laryngeal innervation?
1) internal laryngeal nerve- above vocal folds & superior surface of folds
2) RLN- below vocal folds & inferior surface of folds
what happens in post-laryngectomy state?
can no longer breathe air in via nasal route bc cannot maintain intraabdominal pressure w/o larynx
what animal is this? ID the larynx
how does breast feeding work re: larynx?
high larynx is unique
epiglottis guides larynx, larynx elevates into nasopharynx
permits swallowing while breathing
what is dangerous about larynx's ability to depress down?
because pharynx is common passageway for food, air, breathing must cease while swallowing
what is reflux
when acidic contents from gut go up into larynx
what have we gained via larynx?
huge, permanent oropharynx
id the structures
2 heads of sternocleidomastoid?
sternal and clavicular heads