LEC59: Larynx & Pharynx Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC59: Larynx & Pharynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC59: Larynx & Pharynx Deck (68):
1

when is head the "skull"? the "cranium"?

skull: with mandible

cranium: without mandible 

2

does hyloid directly articulate w/ any other bones?

no

3

spinal level of larynx?

C3-C7

4

muscles extending from hyloid bone?

post and anteiror bellies of digastric m

stylohyoid m

mylohyoid m

geneohyoid m

5

where do you do a crycothyrotomoy?

between thyroid cartilage & cricoid cartilage 

A image thumb
6

"thyros"

"shield"

7

branches of internal carotid in the neck?

it comes from common carotid

NO BRANCHES FROM INTERNAL CAROTID in the neck

8

big terminal branches of external carotid in neck?

maxillary & superficial temporal aa

9

external carotid a branches?

superior thyroid a

ascending pharyngeal a

lingual a

facial a

occipital a

posteiror auricular a

superficial temporal a

maxillary a

*some anatomists like fing, other prefer S&M*

10

superior thyroid is a branch of what? 

& what does it anastomose with?

branch of external carotid a

anastomoses with inferior thyroid a from thyrocervical trunk

11

important facial veins 

external jugular v

internal jugular v

facial v

opthalmic vv

12

why is popping a zit on the side of your nose dangerous?

important venous drainage system is there 

blood from there > facial vein > jugulars or > opthalmic vv > cavernous sinus

13

muscles of the pharynx

1) superior pharyngeal constrictor 

2) middle pharyngeal constrictor 

3) inferior pharyngeal constrictor 

4) sylopharyngeus 

5) salpingopharyngeus

6) palatopharyngeus

 

1-3 are paired; constrict 

4-6 are paired; longitudinal; elevate the constrictors when we swallow

14

constrictor muscles of the pharynx

superior pharyngeal constrictor

middle pharyngeal constrictor 

inferior pharyngeal constrictor

15

which pharyngeal muscles elevate the constrictors

stylopharyngeus

salpingopharyngeus

palatopharyngeus

16

what is true about muscles connecting to styloid bone?

all come from different branchial arches

17

parts of inferior constrictor m

thyropharyngeus 

crycopharyngeus 

18

when is crycopharyngeus m constricted?

always EXCEPT when swallow

19

pharynx is divided into 3 parts

naso pharynx 

oro pharynx

laryngo pharynx

 

20

what's between middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles?

where superior laryngeal nerve, artery, vein enter

21

where is ear - throat connection? why important

nasopharynx - middle ear cnxn =

pharyngotympanic tube

(at level of inferior nasal concha)

portal for infection to spread > middle ear

 

 

22

how do constrictors align posteirorly?

meet at cuscible mtg pt in the middle, a raphe

23

what/where are piriform sinuses

on either side of laryngeal orifice

common place for food to become trapped 

24

layers of pharyngeal wall

from outside to inside: 

1) buccopharyngeal fascia 

2) muscle layer 

3) pharyngobasilar fascia (fibrous layer) 

4) submucosa 

5) mucous membrane

25

innervation of pharynx

pharyngeal plexus (IX, X, XI) + autonomics

26

what is larynx derived from?

4th-6th brachial arches

27

how many/what are cartilages of the larynx?

9: 

unpaired: thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis 

paired: arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform 

28

what structure = adam's apple?

laryngeal prominence

29

is hyoid bone part of the larynx?

no

30

does thyroid cartilage have both front and back?

no 

just front, no back

31

does cricoid cartilage have both front and back?

yes

small front, large back

32

what kind of joint between thyroid and cricoid cartilages?

synovial

33

what kind of front/back does trachea have?

solid front, cartilage

musculo-membranous back

34

where is vocal ligament?

runs from aretenoid > thyroid

35

why don't you do a crycothyrotomy in trachea where rings are?

because there, risk causing a tracheo-esophageal fistula if puncture both trachea and esophagus

36

how many parts to upper larynx internal membrane?

quadrangular upper portion, ends in vestibular fold 

lower portion, ends in vocal fold

37

what do vestibular ligament & vocal ligament do

 

produce vestibular & vocal folds of internal membrane of larynx

38

where does fluid often fill, esp in elderly ppl?

laryngeal ventricle

39

how do you relate things in the larynx?

relate them to the glottis

40

identify the vocal fold

Q image thumb

A image thumb
41

where does food go when swallow?

around larynx into esophagus

42

larynx layers 

epithelium

lamina propria - forms ligament 

vocalis muscle

 

A image thumb
43

what is true vocal cord?

vocal fold 

= vocal ligament + overlying mucosa

44

what is false vocal cord?

vestibular fold 

= vestibular ligament + overlying mucosa

45

laryngoscope fxn

use to visualize epiglottis, back of larynx and its swellings, vocal folds w/ vestibular fold above them

46

what is rima glottidis

opening btwn true vocal cords & arytenoid cartilages

 

47

what do vocal folds control?

1) control air going in/out of our lungs

 2) are a protective sphincter 

3) are fundamnetal frequencies to produce sounds 

4) do maintence of intrathoracic & intraabdominal pressure (ie when constipated, give birth)

48

what helps you lift weights re: larynx?

vocal folds

49

how to make self throw up

1) finger touches lips, arouses GSA in trigeminal CN V

2) finger in front of tongue, now more GSA in trigeminal & also taste in chorda tympani of CN VII 

3) back of tongue, posterior 1/3, in CN IX - shares 4 brainstem nuclei w/ CN X

4) GAG REFLEX is initiated 

5) if went further, touch epiglottis - CN X 

so invade center of universe- CN X! 

50

muscles of larynx

glottic muscles

most important:

posterior cricoarytenoid, cricothyroid 

 

others:

lateral cricoarytenoid, transverse arytenoid, thyroarytenoid, vocalis

51

what muscle abducts vocal folds of larynx?

posterior cricoarytenoid m

52

what is unique about cricothyroid m?

only larynx m not innervated by RLN

innervated in SLN

53

folds' main job?

sphincter protection

54

swellings of folds causes what?

laryngitis

55

what muscle is this

Q image thumb

posterior crico-arytenoid mm

56

what muscle is this 

Q image thumb

cricothyroid m

57

what is position of epiglottis when swallow?

down

58

inlet muscles of larynx re: epiglottis?

1) thyroepiglotticus

2) oblique artenoid

3) aryepiglotticus 

59

motor laryngeal innervation?

mostly RLN 

also exsternal branch of SLN

60

sensory laryngeal innervation?

1) internal laryngeal nerve- above vocal folds & superior surface of folds 

2) RLN- below vocal folds & inferior surface of folds

61

what happens in post-laryngectomy state?

can no longer breathe air in via nasal route bc cannot maintain intraabdominal pressure w/o larynx

62

what animal is this? ID the larynx

Q image thumb

rabbit

 

A image thumb
63

how does breast feeding work re: larynx? 

high larynx is unique

epiglottis guides larynx, larynx elevates into nasopharynx 

permits swallowing while breathing

 

64

what is dangerous about larynx's ability to depress down?

because pharynx is common passageway for food, air, breathing must cease while swallowing

 

65

what is reflux

when acidic contents from gut go up into larynx

66

what have we gained via larynx?

huge, permanent oropharynx

67

id the structures

 

Q image thumb

A image thumb
68

2 heads of sternocleidomastoid?

sternal and clavicular heads

 

A image thumb