What does Developmental Psychology study?
How we change over time from conception to death. Child Development is from conception to puberty. Study everything, physical, cognitive, social.
What are the goals of developmental psychology?
Describe -- how development occurs, what happens Explain -- why does this occur
Why study children?
- Rapid development - long term influences (ex. mom smokes while pregnant) - Real world application - Evolutionarily we love babies :)
What are the three overarching themes?
- Directionality of Development - Continuity vs Discontinuity - Nature vs Nurture
Describe directionality of development:
Sometimes in order to function better a system must become less complex. An example of this is the decrease in phonemes we can hear that occurs as we age.
Describe continuity vs discontinuity:
The continuity perspective: flowing development The discontinuity perspective: development in stage How related is the person to how they were before.
Describe Nature vs Nurture:
Nature: generally goes with discontinuity. We are our biology Nurture: generally continuity. We are taught to be the person we become, experiences are important *No longer a debate both are important*
Name Methods of Data collection
1) case studies 2) Observational research 3) Correlational research 4) Experimental research
Which of the methods of data collection allow for causal statements?
True Lab Experimental research with random assignment
How do case studies work?
Done most often if the situation is rare. One or two cases are followed very closely and reported on. The individual and family are interviewed regularly.
What is the problem with case studies? Use John Moohey's Circumcision accident study as an example.
Biased results are possible with case studies. John Moohey studied a young child born male but raised female. John Moohey was biased that gener was cultural and all of his interviews with the individual indicated she was a happy female however they eventually committed suicide.
Give an example of observational research:
Watching children at a playground and note what they do. etc. ..
Examples of Correlational research are:
-Survey Studies (structured interviews, parent-teacher interviews, Peer reports)
What is retrospective data?
Surveying and adult to find out what they were like as a kid
What is a problem with retrospective data?
Results are often coloured by memory biases
What is a solution to retrospective data
Follow kids from a young age and see what they are like in adulthood.
Why would we do a quasi experiment?
Random assignment is not possible due to participants already grouped by age, financial situation etc. Cannot make causal statment in quasi experiments
Name three methods of over coming age effects:
1) Cross Sectional Design 2) Longitudinal Design 3) Sequential Design
Describe how a cross section design works:
Test different ages at the same time
What are the Pros and Cons of a cross sectional design:
Pros: Quick, cheap, demonstrates age differences Cons: Cohort effect, says nothing about how development occurs (continuous vs discontinuous)
What is the cohort effect?
When a group of people share the same historical experiences it is difficult to determine why people of different ages have different abilities. Could be age or could be shared experience.
What is the Longitudinal Design?
Follow the same participants as they age over a period of years.
What are the Pros and Cons of a longitudinal Design?
Pros: Tell us about the developmental course, reveal links between experiences and later outcomes, eliminates some cohort effects Cons: Cohort still a problem, Cross-generational problem, cost, time, practice effects, selective attrition can be a problem
What is the cross generational problem:
Does the study still apply today. If you study a 10yo developing to 20yo in the 30s would the study still apply in the 90s
What is selective attrition:
The people dropping out of the study may be making it look like something is happening when really it isn't
What is a sequential design?
Combination of cross sectional and longitudinal
What is a microgenetic design?
Intense daily observation when the change is expected to occur Pros: Watch development as it occurs Cons: Why does development occur, practice effects
Ethically what is required in research with children?
-Describe research clearly without deception to parents -Annonymous -Must receive consent from parents It is difficult to detraumatize children, must be very careful