Flashcards in Lecture 7 Intelligence Deck (60):
The ability to reason, plan, think abstract. Not book learning but broader capacity to comprehend our surroundings and adapt to the world around you.
What is intelligence:
Describe Crystallized intelligence:
Knowledge you pick up over time. Store of knowledge about the nature of the world, vocab and math.
Describe Fluid intelligence:
The ability to solve novel problems that depend relatively little on stored knowledge but on the ability to learn. More working memory.
Why did Binet develop an intelligence test?
For the identification of children who will need academic support. The test tests thing that hadn't been learned in school.
When was Binet's test developed:
Describe Binet's Test:
Series of increasingly difficult tasks related to everyday problems as well as basic reasoning (classification, understanding and relationships)
Define Mental age:
Different problems became associated with the age most kids can solve them. This is known as the mental age.
How is mental age tested:
Kids go through problems until they can no longer solve them, this mental age is then compared to the chronological age of the children. If mental age is lower than the chronological age this indicates the child isn't developing properly
What is the intelligence quotient:
We divide the mental age by the chronological age to get a quotient where the average is 100.
What was Binet's warning?
Very useful test but realized it wasn't going to be used the way it was supposed to be and warned against this. It was still used to "prove" white superiority and to test pple wanting to move to US (in english if they don't know the language).
What are three modern day intelligence tests?
1) Stanford Binet Test
Intelligence tests contain _________ and _________ components
verbal and non-verbal
Describe the WISC:
Contains 15 subtests.
- 5 verbal: verbal comprehension index
- working memory index
- Processing speed index
- Perceptual reasoning index
What are picture completion tasks?
Finding what is missing in the picture
Describe the distribution of IQ scores:
IQ scores are normed and forced into a standard deviation with a mean of 100. One SD is 15 pts.
Are IQs reliable:
Scores stabilize over time. Stability increases with increasing age but kids show fluctuations.r's = 0.65 to 0.85
IQ at ____can usually predict IQ as an ____
Describe the New Zealand Longitudinal Study:
Followed kids through their life. Some kids showed IQ fluctuations. 10% had an SD shift. SD shifts were generally due to major life events ex. divorce decrease in IQ or Grandma moving in and extra help increase in IQ
Are IQ tests valid?
1) current and future academic performance -GPA, SAT and GRE
2) Number of years in school
3) Job attainment and performance
Low IQ is associated with:
1) adult illiteracy
Is intelligence heritable?
The overall concordance rate in twins is ___, intelligence concordance rate is ____
_________ are replicating findings in family and twin studies by comparing genomes.
Molecular genetic studies
Why is there a political/ economical debate in the US?
If intelligence is heritable than social programs are not needed. If IQ depends on experience than social programs must be instituted.
Describe Data supporting heritability of intelligence:
1)Pattern of increased concordance rates for closer related
2) Higher concordance rate b/w biological parents and child than child and adoptive parents (adoptive parents do have a difference)
Why does the effect of genes increase with age?
Our genes not only code for intelligence but also the things associated with intelligence. Transactional model.
Describe the transactional model:
children select and evoke environments that stimulate their intellectual development. This increases with age b/c with age you have more autonomy about what you do. This results in you reaching your potential.
Between birth to age 2 family environment accounts for ____ of intelligence differences. Genes account for ____ of variance at this age.
20 - 30 %
By age 15 Family environments impact drops to ____ while genes explain _____ of the variance
60 -70 %
Cooper and Zubek found that Maze Bright and Maze Dull rats:
Enriched environment was esp. good for maze dull rats. This shows that environment does have and impact and can change the phenotypic expression of genotype.
In families lower than middle class ______ contributes to intelligence more than genes. _______ suppresses ______
Family environment aka SES
genotype (don't reach potential)
Why does low SES suppress intelligence?
Children of higher SES are more able to engage in activites that support their learning compared to low SES.
Describe the concept of the reaction range?
Your genes code for your intellligence to lie anywhere within a range. Your environment decides where within that range you lie.
If you are in rich environment aka ________ you will be at the ______ of your reaction range
Mid or High SES
True or False: Getting kids out of impoverished environments helps them intellectually
In an experiment by Ziegler and Seitz originally only ___ of low SES kids scored higher than the mean of the reference population but after implementing interventions ____ scored higher than the mean of the reference population
In the US poor children IQ is ____ pts lower than mid and upper class children
10 to 15
What are 8 cumulative risk factors?
1) Maternal mental health
2) Maternal anxiety
3) Maternal education
4) Father absent
5) Head of household occupation
6) 5+ children
7) Life events in family
8) Minority groups
Risk factors are associated with both _____ and ______. The more risk factors a child has (including high SES kids) the more the risk factors ________.
poverty and IQ
What are other mechanisms that influence IQ:
1) Mom's response to vocalization
2) Talking with kids
3) Reading with kids
4) Interest in academic achievement
5) Emotional Responsiveness
In lower SES familes moms are _______ to vocalize back. In mid and high SES families moms will vocalize back and the baby will ________. Amount of responsiveness by moms before _____ predicts IQ at ______
stop vocalizing and listen
Moms with ________ tend to talk to kids at a higher level than the kids could achieve on their own. Middle and upper class moms spend _________ and say more ______.
more time talking to kids
Interest in academic achievement increases with ______
Emotional responsivement increases with ______
Increased _______ and ______ moms are more likely to let children explore and be less punitive. They are more supportive of interests and don't constrain children.
education and SES
Being read to predicts ____________ later in life. Moms with increased education are more likely to_________.
read to children
In the US ____ is confounded with poverty. Minority races especially _______ are more likely to be impoverished.
Ashkenazi (european) Jews have an IQ _____ above that of White Americans.
Asians have an IQ ______ above white Americans
Blacks have an IQ ______ below that of white Americans
8 to 10 pts
Define Stereotype threat:
The sense of fear a person has that they will fulfil a negative stereotype about their group.
Stereotype threat can raise ______ and raise arousal to the point that it ______ performance.
How does stereotype threat affect Japan untouchables?
Expected to perform badly in Japan and did (self fulfilling prophecy). In Canada they aren't expected to do bad so they don't.
When Black and whites at Stanford were given the same test introduced as either a game or an intelligence test. When it was a introduced as a game ________________. When it was introduced as an intelligence test ______________. This is likely due to _____________.
both black and whites did equally well
Whites did much better than blacks
Black and white differences in intellectual attainment ______ when ___________. (at least at Stanford university)
stereotype threat is removed
A genetic difference is ________ as the main cause for this race difference in intellect. This effect is probably due to ________.
Evidence for genetic and environment effects on intelligence:
- family and adoption studies
- Transactional model
- Reaction Range